San-t’i shi explained by Sun Jian-Yun, interviewed by Bradford Tyrey

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In the 1980s I asked Madam Sun Jian-Yun (Sun Lu-T’ang’s daughter) and Wang Xi-Kui (Sun Lu-T’ang’s disciple) many questions over the years. Here are two explanations provided by Madam Sun, and further substantiated by Wang [unfortunately Wang passed away only a couple of years after studying with him]. The explanations below are the initial explanations that were given when entering into neijiaquan practices. Further detailed clarifications were given with each palm or fist set.

Q: Would you explain the true meaning of 三體式(san-t’ishi), according to the explanation of
your father [Sun Lu-T’ang] and his teacher, Master Guo Yun-Shen?

Compiler’s Notation: The Chinese character 體(t’i), according to period dictionaries during the lives of masters
Guo and Sun, means: the whole body; a frame consisting of many parts; substance; essentials; to embody; a solid; a
partition; completeness. The character (體) is composed of two radicals: bone [the human skeleton] and sacrificial
vessel. These meanings will help you to understand Madam Sun’s response. As she had been an art teacher of fine
painting methods, she explained this written character according to its two radical parts, and to the teachings of her
father and Master Guo. Therefore, 三體式 (san-t’ishi) can, in part, be translated as: Three Embodiments Posture;
Three Substances Posture; or Three Essentials Posture. It is safe to say that collectively, these three translations of
三體式 will bring you closer to understanding its inclusive meaning. I have chosen to use ‘embodiment’ as the fore
fronting translation based upon clarifications presented by both Madam Sun and Wang Xi-Kui (Sun Lu-T’ang’s

A: There have been so many general explanations of this meaning, most falling far from its true
explanation and significance. Let me clarify this meaning as I was taught. First, are the san-
wait’i(three external embodiments): one’s head, hands and feet. The tip of the head [one’s
nose], the tips of the lead hand [fingertips], and tips of the lead foot [tips of the toes] must
point toward a central forward position. These are often referred to as san-duanshi(three
sections posture], and are but one part of the Three Embodiments.Second, are the san-neit’i
(three internal embodiments). These are the san tan-t’ien(three pill fields [cauldrons of qi]),
Located in the upper, middle, and lower regions. The outer three are paired with kai (to open
[extend]), while the inner three are paired with he’r(to unite [contract]. Thereby, outer and
inner conjoin to transform within the principle of kai-he’r(open-unite) within the three
neijiaquan arts: taijiquan, baguazhang and xingyquan. We can now form an overall
understanding of 三體(san-t’i). The character三(three) refers to three things: the outer three,
inner three, and the three neijiaquan arts. The character 體refers to the complete interior and
exterior structure of the human body as a vessel [sacrificial vessel], which is the embodiment,
unification and transformation of the 三. Three further represents: Heaven, Man, and Earth.


Q: Your father taught the 十六處練法Shiliu Chu Lian Fa (Sixteen Governing [Distinguishing] Training Methods). Would you explain the meaning of each of the governing skills and how each applies to neijiaquan practice?
1. A be an exact inch, but rather a step that is very, very small, near to that of an inch. My father taught that brutish force stems from large, aggressive stepping that relies upon muscular generation. The smallness of an inch in stepping requires that largeness [force] must come from the many parts of the body conjoining to produce ‘unified force’ that is issued through only a single inch of advancement or retreat. In this manner the other fifteen governing parts [developed skills] merge to become an overwhelming force and are carried by a single inch, thereby totaling the sixteen methods. When we practice taijiquan or any boxing art,the action of cunbu(inch stepping) can be used throughout the form or in specific movements. Such stepping is the governing foundation to practice cunji(inch striking) in which whole body strikes and can hit an adversary with great force from only an inch away. This is the union of the upper [hands] and lower [feet] regions. Both regions reflect and support the other. Fault in one shall result in fault in the other region. This is why I often remind all of you to adhere to the shiliu fa (sixteen methods), as they form the structure for correct inner and outer development and attainment. Do not forget!

Translation note on the character 寸 :Formed of the radicals: hand and one beneath it, to denote the pulse of the wrist, an inch from the hand. The Chinese inch or punto, which is regarded as equal to the middle joint of the finger; it measures one-tenth of a cubit or foot, thereby meaning ‘a very little.’

踐Jian(Trample on or over); from the radicals: foot and in a narrow, small place. 踐Jianrefers to your feet [including the legs] feeling as if they are like that of a wild horse’s hooves and are able to swiftly trample anything in their path. This feeling, as if to restrain a horse about to gallop, is kept abet by the tether of one’s spirit. Jian is the skill of moving with overwhelming force, yet without such force. It is the ability to initiate the impetus of movement within the cocoon of tranquility. This means that jian(trampling) can assume [take] any position that is desired, as nothing can stand against its force. One can step fully, half-step, obliquely step, withdraw or jump, each possess the method of jian. However, within jian it is essential to maintain one’s zhong din (central equilibrium), else improper leaning and loss of balance will cause one to fall, thereby the skill of ‘trampling’ instantly vanishes. Though correct stepping methods forefront jiangong(trampling development) it is zhangshen(long [the entire] body) that must be applied toward skill attainment. Students have further asked if the hands also follow the practice of jianfa(the trampling method)? My father told his students that the hands and feet are like the four hooves of a horse, all are the same; all adhere to 踐.: Yes, I will present the fundamental explanation according to how my father taught this within our family. You must remember that each governing skill must be so very carefully practiced and refined over the years. The mistake that most students make is that they learn of these skills though never pursue the secrets of each. Without unlocking these skills, the essential parts of true development within neijiaquan cannot be attained. The order of these skills is not so important, as some students must begin with the seventh, another with the thirteenth. It is the integration of all parts that is most important and most necessary.
Notation: Madam Sun’s explanations were presented to us while attending classes. However, I felt it important to explain each Chinese written character according to radicals and explanations from Chinese dictionaries that were period to the days of Master Sun Lu-T’ang and his teachers.This approach significantly helped me to understand Madam Sun’s meanings in a more comprehensive manner. In fact, she was impressed by this method that she asked the other members of the class do the same. For me, it was a matter to understand how to correctly practice the 十六處練法Shiliu Chu Lian Fa (Sixteen Governing [Distinguishing] Training Methods), as one misinterpretation, according to Madam Sun, would unravel the thread that binds the sixteen together.
2. 寸Cun (Inch) ~ refers to one’s foot taking a step that is near to that of a single inch. Whether the step is forward, to the rear, or to an angle the entire force of the body must be generated through and into an inch of stepping. This step is referred to as cunbu(inch step).

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Taiji Da Shou: 5 Hammers (punches) of Yang Taijiquan Gong fu

last edit 3/3/2015

5 hammers (punches) of Yang Taijiquan are:
1. Step, parry, deflect, and hammer strike (punch). 6x
2. Twist body hammer.3x
3. Unload, parry, deflect, and hammer.3x
4. Punch down hammer.1x
5. Punch crotch (bladder) hammer.1x

Put together, they are done approximately 14 times in the Long form.

The core sequence that includes the most hammers 3x are strung together in the classic long form is the #2 twist body hammer with the #3 unloading step, parry, deflect and hammer found in the Yang Long Form. Its significance is important as it is performed 3x in the Long form. First from “Flash Hands” or “Open Fan/Fan through the back”,and from the “Punch Down” hammer, and lastly from the second “Flash hands” in the latter half of form. It is a segment that starts with a series of fist and open palm strikes using the momentum of a 180 degree turn to the rear, followed by the classical ending sequence: ‘turn, chop with fist, step, parry, punch‘.


Yang Family website lists them as:
14. 进步搬拦捶 jin4 bu4 ban1 lan2 chui2 Step forward, Parry Block and Punch
28. 转身撇身捶 zhuan3 shen1 pie1 shen1 chui2 Turn Body and Chop with Fist
29. 进步搬拦捶 jin4 bu4 ban1 lan2 chui2 Step Forward, Parry Block and Punch
42. 进步栽锤 jin4 bu4 zai1 chui2 Step Forward and Punch Down
43. 转身撇身锤 zhuan3 shen1 pie1 shen1 chui2 Turn Body and Chop with Fist
44. 进步搬拦锤 jin4 bu4 ban1 lan2 chui2 Step Forward, Parry Block and Punch
52. 进步搬拦锤 jin4 bu4 ban1 lan2 chui2 Step Forward, Parry Block and Punch
81. 转身白蛇吐信 zhuan3 shen1 bai2 she2 tu4 xin4 Turn Bodyand White Snake Spits out Tongue
82. 进步搬拦捶 jin4 bu4 ban1 lan2 chui2 Step Forward, Parry Block and Punch
91. 进步指裆锤 jin4 bu4 zhi3 dang1 chui2 Step Forward and Punch Groin
99. 进步搬拦捶 jin4 bu4 ban1 lan2 chui2 Step Forward, Parry Block and Punch

In Mastering Yang Style Taijiquan by Fu Zhongwen he lists:

Postures containing the hammers/punches:
#12 Advance step, deflect, parry punch.
#24. Turn body and strike.
#25 Advance step, deflect, parry and punch.
#34: Advance step, plant punch.
#35: Turn body and strike.
#36: Advance step, deflect, parry punch.
#44: Advance step, deflect, parry punch.
#66: Turn body and strike with White Snake spits tongue.
#67: Advance step, deflect, parry punch.
#74: Punch Toward the groin.
#82: Advance step, deflect, parry punch.

From the book: p.34 Taijiquan Shi by Xu Yu-Sheng.

“People of the southern region [Guandong] use the written character “hammer” to refer to a fist that strikes like a hammer, pounding something downward. Therefore, the name of this posture should be ‘Step Forward, Parry, Deflect, and Strike with a Hammer”.

Xu Yu-sheng lists them in his book as:

#8- Advance, Parry (remove), Deflect (block, and hammer, (strike).
#23- Twisting body hammer.
#24- Unload step, Parry (remove), Deflect (block, and hammer, (strike).
#35- Forward step, plant hammer.
#42- Overturn body, and twist body hammer.
#60- Advance, Parry (remove), Deflect (block, and hammer, (strike).
#66- Brush knee and crotch hammer.
#72-conclusion contains- Advance, Parry (remove), Deflect (block, and hammer, (strike).

The Chinese words for this sequence are:
Twist body hammer- Lei Xia Hiao Cha shou- (Under rib Intersecting cross hand) into Bei Shen Chui- (Twist body hammer). Continuing into the unloading step series of hammers:
Guo ban shou- (wrapping parry hands), and Qian da chui- (forward striking hammer), and then the step-parry deflect hammer sequence containing a repeat of Guo ban shou, then Wei lan Shou- (outer stopping hand), and again Qian da chui.

Yang sequence showing several of the hammers, Da Jia “Large Frame” version in the Long form.

One thing, that I like about the ‘core section’ I’m talking about called:
[ Twist body hammer + Unload, parry, deflect, and hammer] or as Fu Zhongwen lists as:
#24. Turn body and strike,
#25 Advance step, deflect, parry and punch.

….is that when I first learned in back in 1994, the first thing I though of was “Well damn, now here is the lost pugilistic portion of Yang Taijiquan!!,” since it is a quick series of offensive punches and palm strikes not found in previous forms I had learned. It has a nice rotational action with consecutive rolling punches using whole body power. It feels much closer to pugilistic boxing than it does Chen’s Taiji fajin boxing.

The No-nonsense combative form of partner striking drilling called “Da Shou” or ‘hand striking skills’ is encoded in this specific sequence of hammer movements, before it was modified for more less contusion and bruising version called “Tui Shou” or “push hands”. It also encodes a vertical arm pung jin as a defensive whipping, rolling, and intercepting motion.

Later when Coach Pei taught more details of that Long form section, he taught along with it “Da Shou (Striking hands)” two-man drills, thus it all made sense to me. There are several types of two-man paired drilling and conditioning based on certain form sections. This is not to confuse you with the rare 88 “San shou” the 2-man choreographed fighting set which is something entirely different. The three main well know are the Single hand sets, Double hands “4 Square (Peng-Lu-Ji-An) Tui Shou” and “Da Lu (Big Rollback,Tsai-lieh-zhou-kao)”. The lesser known “Lan Chiao Wei (Grasp Bird tail) Qin-na set”, Forearm banging drills, and Da Shou (Strike hand) drills. There are several more I can elaborate on another time.

Da Shou in this Video sampler

This unique sequence of hammers uses a clever use of the waist when expressing fajin as an expansive force, concealing a simultaneous retraction quality at the 1st hammer to the Face, palm strike to chest, and 3rd hammer to the lower ribs to the Great Luo of the Spleen (SP21).

Every Tai Chi “short form” ever created and Wushu modified Long forms all have successfully failed to add this important and critical section into their sets. Most just include what I call the “standard step-parry-deflect punch” and “punch down” hammer.

Hammers on the bag with hand conditioning:
as a clue to the usage in ‘da shou‘ hand striking.

There is a lot more in that section than just hammer strikes. Elbow is apparent, and the “open hand” version of 5 Hammers is called “White Snake Spits tongue” with the difference is the vertical shaped “pung jin” that expresses a fajin with a flick of the fingers to the opponents eyes.

-Training in Shanghai China Fu Zhong Wen’s Yongnian Association 1994.
-Mastering Yang Taijiquan- Master Fu Zhong Wen, translated by Louis Swaim 1999.
-Yang family Taijiquan Association. 2004
-USWA (United States Wushu Academy) Coach Pei, a student of Yang Zhenjia, Yang Zhendou, and Fu Zhongwen 2011.
-Translation of Xu Yu-Sheng’s book Taijiquan Shu by Bradford Tyrey 2015.

Posted in Fighting: San Shou/Sanda/Shuai Chiao, Tai Chi Chaun/Taijiquan | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

13 Yang style linear walking animals and 13 Standing gong practice.

Last edit- 3/5/2015

Here is a method of training we used to do at the Yongnian Taijiquan school in Richmond Virginia long ago. We did not call them “Animals”, I did some research on various Yang styles and found a VCD in Chinese (no English subtitles) and they used the linear walking forms, but called them “animal xing” (shapes). The VCD was on Yang Jianhou’s 13 animal shapes. In discussion with other folks, it has come to my awareness that Ginsoon in Boston teaches these Yang 13 animals but in a more “Hsingyiquan” type of way with stepping and speed.

Some of the lines I remember doing over the years are:

Walking without hand: forward (hands on tan tien), back (fists on kidneys), sideways.
With hand:
1. Forward moving gong bu with raise hands.
2. Sideways step with loosening/fly arms.

Core: performed on both sides for balance.
1. Part Horse Mane. Holding posture: white crane spread wings.
2. Brush knee. holding posture: Play pipa.
3. Guang Ping style Wind blows lotus leaves (half horse stance w/Spread wings). Hold: half horse.
4. Repulse monkey. hold posture: Slant fly.
5. Grasp bird Tail. Hold posture: An.
6. Cloud Hands. hold posture: single whip.
7. Separate Left and right foot. hold posture: double strike temples.
8. Snake Creeps down (Wu style variant). Hold: drop stance.
9. Rooster on one leg. Holding: rooster one leg.
10. Leg circles, Shaolin Stance, Heel kick lines. Hold: heel kick.
11. Fair Maiden plays shuttles (both Yang and Wu variations). Hold: shuttles.
12. Pull and Press/deflect and press. Hold: press.
13. Step, deflect, parry punch. Hold: punch.

As to how they were performed and what they looked like, that is for me to know and for you to find out. I’m pretty sure some of you have already learned many of these already.

The way I was taught was slow Taiji speed. The VCD from China however had a more different way of performing the animals not to the current Yang Family / Fu Zhong Wen style of the more standard “Da Jia” or “Large frame” style, but was more of Yang Jianhou’s older way of doing them. His way was both similar in appearance to both Chen and Wu (Quanyu) styles. I changed them here closer to the way I learned them and as we did them. The only part I included is adding more standing using the Taiji Wu Ji and Taiji Ma Pu stance holding to put in more holding posture time for the benefit of getting more gong training in. Our class was dedicated to do several of these Taiji walking forms as “Basics” or Jibengong. It is a lot of grinding, deep leg work, and most of the class time was done using these and the standing forms combined. Stretching is necessary before doing these. Be prepared to have sore legs in a good way if you put in the hard work.

13 Linear Animals

13 Standing Gongs

Combined 13 linear animal walking and standing gong

Essence standing: Each form starts with:
Wu Ji posture- take 3 breaths cycles (1 cycle = 1 inhale and 1 exhale to dan tien).
Next: widen stance, sink down, and bow the back, arms and legs for:
Taiji Ma pu- “Holding the One” posture with 3x breath cycle to dan tien.

Ending a Form: reverse from above.
Taiji Ma pu- “Holding the One” posture with 3x breath cycle to dan tien.
Next: close stance, rise up to Wuji posture. 3 x cycle breathing at Dan tien.

Basic without hand movement: Beginners should practice these movements without use of arms. place hands on tan tien.
1. Taiji walking forward.
2. Taiji walking backward.
3. Taiji walking sideways.

13 Animal linear forms
1. Horse Xing- Start with both Essence standing postures, begin Taiji walking with Part horse mane repeatedly. Holding: use the Grasp bird tail postures (ward off, roll back, press, and push). Finish with Essence standing: Taiji Mabu and Wuji postures.

2. Lion Xing- Start with both Essence standing postures, begin Brush knees repeatedly, Holding: Pipa (alternate left and right side).Finish with Essence standing: Taiji Mabu and Wuji postures.

3. Sparrow Xing- Start with both Essence standing postures, repeat moving the through the Grasp bird tail postures both sides. Holding: after repeating them moving, end with holding Grasp bird Tail postures (Ward off, roll, back, press, push). Finish with Essence standing: Taiji Mabu and Wuji postures.

4. Dragon Xing- Start with both Essence standing postures, walking through cloud hands 4x, Hold: Single whip, repeat clouds hands 4x, Hold: Single whip repeat. Finish with Essence standing: Taiji Mabu and Wuji postures.

5. Monkey Xing- Start with both Essence standing postures, Hold: Pipa (left or right), next move through Repulse monkey 5x, Hold: Slant flying. Repeat. Finish with Essence standing: Taiji Mabu and Wuji postures.

6. Rooster Xing- Start with both Essence standing postures, moving forward Rooster with slap kick (pai jao) repeatedly, Holding: Pluck-kick posture. Finish with Essence standing: Taiji Mabu and Wuji postures.

7. Tiger Xing- Start with both Essence standing postures, moving forward with Hit tigerrepeatedly. Hold: hit tiger. Finish with Essence standing: Taiji Mabu and Wuji postures.

8. Snake Xing- Start with both Essence standing postures, move through snake coils/holding ball method repeatedly, Holding: Shoulder Bump/strike. Finish with Essence standing: Taiji Mabu and Wuji postures.

9. Phoenix Xing- Start with both Essence standing postures, move though slanted flying (Wu style method) repeatedly. Holding: Slanted fly posture. Finish with Essence standing: Taiji Mabu and Wuji postures.

10. Frog Xing- Start with both Essence standing postures, repeat snake creeps down using the Swallow skims water method. Holding: pluck-kick. Finish with Essence standing: Taiji Mabu and Wuji postures.

11. Crane Xing- Start with both Essence standing postures, move through Fair maiden plays shuttles repeatedly. End with holding Grasp bird Tail postures (Ward off, roll, back, press, push). Finish with Essence standing: Taiji Mabu and Wuji postures.
Finish with Essence standing: Taiji Mabu and Wuji postures.

12. Bear Xing- Start with both Essence standing postures, repeatedly move through Single whip left and right sides (Yang Jianhou method), Holding: single whip. Finish with Essence standing: Taiji Mabu and Wuji postures.

13. Panther Xing- Start with both Essence standing postures, repeat the Double punch temples, chop with fist and parry-punch series both left and right sides. End with holding Grasp bird Tail postures (Ward off, roll, back, press, push). Finish with Essence standing: Taiji Mabu and Wuji postures.

standing postures information:
Cultivating the Chi- by Stuart Olsen

13 animals information:
Wang Dianzhen: “Yang Family Taijiquan of Yang Jianhou” set of VCDs:

Yang Family Taijiquan of Yang Jianhou set of VCDs.

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2015 Year of the Sheep- Feng shuai meditation. Colors Red, Blue, Yellow.

Year of the Sheep- Feng shuai meditation.*
*excerpts from the chapter on Year of Sheep from the book- “Universal law of cosmic cycles” – by Robert A. Ferguson

This is the year to work with color and vibration to set miracles in your life.

Psychic “Rainbow laser” of color towards others and objects. Color is nothing but a reflection of light and power, light with a unique vibration and frequency.

Red- Physical being.
Yellow- mental self.
Blue- Spirit energy.
White- Absence of colors, universal perfection and absolute power.
Black- combination of all colors, represents a negative force humans create.
Black and white are used together to draw positive and repel negative from you.

Part 1:
Get two full glasses of water- set them 18 inches apart. Gaze (don’t stare) between the two glasses. Visualize a Rainbow between the glasses. Fill your being with courage and love.

Part 2:
Relax in a dimly lighted room seated comfortably.
Place right hand on heart and say, “ I dedicate myself to the compassion of the sheep. As I am freely blessed, so shall I bless those less fortunate than myself.”

Place left hand on forehead and say, “My spirit and my conscious are now filled with the perfecting power of the zodiac sheep. No power but good may enter my world. “

Ending- “I am truly thankful for the perfecting spirit of the cosmic rainbow has blessed me with power to make my life healthy happy and whole.”

Chant of the Rainbow Red.
Visualize your Cosmic rainbow, direct the Red energy towards person or object you want to influence, repeat, “ The mystic power of the cosmic sheep is now directing to ________. I now command the red of my cosmic rainbow fulfill my desire now. (Express your desire).

Chant of the Cosmic Blue
Direct the Blue color of the rainbow towards a person or object you wish to influence. Repeat, “I come to the altar of the sheep to declare an injustice that has been done to me. (State the injustice), Justice is now done and so it is!”

Chant of the zodiacscope Yellow
Visualize the Rainbow and direct the yellow at yourself or another person you wish to invigorate in a mental or psychic way. Repeat, ‘My mind (or name of person) is filled with knowledge now. My desire is to _________. And so it is!”

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Dong Ui Bo Gam (동의보감) Korean Classic “Mirror of Eastern Medicine” Heo Jun (1539-1615 A.D.)

Dong Ui Bo Gam (동의보감) , Korean commentaries on the Huang Di Nei Jing (Yellow Emperor Classic on Internal Medicine) and many other Chinese Medicine Classics. I will cite within this Korean classic on Chinese medicine. The importance of this is Korea’s unhindered history in study of the traditional medicine since Han dynasty without interruption of wars, dynastic changes, and political upheavals. The book has several main topics with many chapters for each main topic. From what my professor said, Heo Jun uses around 189 Chinese Medicine classics and about 11 Korean medicine books when he wrote it.

Selections from the Dong Ui Bo Gam read in class: 1/23/2015, I will add some notes from class on discussion in regards to topic of:
Misc. causes of disease*
Constitution: Parents age, health, and pregnancy affects constitution of baby.
1. Excessive physical work:
-Excessive reading injures the blood and heart
-Excessive lying down injures the qi of the lungs.
-Excessive sitting injures the muscles and spleen.
-Excessive standing injures the bones and kidneys.
-Excessive exercise injures the tendons and liver.

2. Insufficient exercise: Qi stagnation, and dampness: feeling sore and achy. Try Tai Chi or Yoga.

3. Excessive sex: causes fatigue, back pain, weak knees.

4. Insufficient sex: cause qi interal heat issues, loneliness, craving for sex, depression, heart and mind issues.

5. Diet:
-Modern changes in food: be aware of pesticides, antibiotics, hormones, fortified, preservatives and other chemicals.
-Insufficient eating: malnutrition in 3rd world, elderly, vegetarians, and other strict diets.
-Blood tonic: meat is a blood tonic.
-Cold energy eating: salads and cheese, raw veggies cause a cold damp, cheese causes phlegm, blood and qi stagnation in the spleen. Spleen likes warm and dry, not cold and ice which makes the spleen yang weaken.
-Overeating: spleen and stomach dampness. Sweet/Sugar causes spleen dampness as well.
-Hot/Spicy: heat symptoms of stomach and liver.
-Greasy: phlegm and dampness of stomach and spleen.
-State of body/mind: eating under distress, hurry, and rushed mentally causes Stomach Yin deficiency.

6. Trauma: injury to a body area causes a local Qi stagnation.

7. Parasites and poison: the high sugar diet of children causes a dampness which is attractive to worms.

8. Wrong treatment: a wrong acupuncture treatment is much less harmful to someone, than a wrong herbal formula.

9. Prescription/Medicinal drugs: Beta blockers and tranquilizers alter the pulse, antibiotics and steroids cause changes in patient tongue.

10. Recreational drugs- Long term usage:
-Marijuana: causes kidney deficiency, affects heart, blood, and spleen (munchies). Long term affect on memory and will.
-Cocaine: creates a phlegm-fire in the heart, affects psychological and mental functions.
-LSD: causes a type of Heart-fire, causing “flashbacks” and psychosis.
-Ecstasy: Causes brain damage and suppresses immune system, obstructs the kidney and heart orifices.
*The Foundations of Chinese Medicine by Giovanni Maciocia, Chapter 22 Misc. causes of Disease.

We used the Dong Ui Bo Gam to touch on some of these topics and more:

On the Body:

Prologue last paragraph. p.13
“The shape of a man is better to be short than long, to be small than big, and to be skinny than fat. The color of a man’s skin is better to be black than white, to be dark than pale, to be thick than thin. Furthermore, a fat man is rich in dampness, a thin person is rich in fire, a pale white person is deficient in Lung qi, and a dark person is rich in kidney qi. Everyman is different in his complexion and shapes, and therefore has differences in his viscera and bowels compared to others. This shows that different patients must be treated differently even if they show the same symptoms.”- Zhu Zhenheng.

Chapter 7- The Life span is dependent on the shape and qi

first paragraph p.19
It is said in the Divine Pivot: “A person lives long if shape and qi match each other and dies young if they don’t”.

Professor commentary in class: If a large man has a lot of Qi will live much longer than a large man with little bit of Qi. A thin man with a lot Qi will live long than a thin man with a little bit of Qi”.


Paragraph 2 p.19
There is a saying in the “Classified Compilation on Nurturing Life” : “If the Qi from food gets stronger than the original qi, the person gets fat and cannot live long; if the original qi gets stronger than the qi from food, the person gets thin and can live long.”

Paragraph 3 p.19
Yutuan once said, “The pulse is fast in those who have impetuous personality; the pulse is slow in those who are relaxed. Generally, those who have a slow pulse live long, and those who have a fast pulse usually die young.”

Professor commentary- there was a study done on mice, and that via observation, the mice that moved fastest, ate fast, and were more busy, dies younger. Autopsy on these mice revealed they had a heart condition.

Chapter 6- Differences in Lifespan
Paragraph 1 p.17
In the Basic Questions: “Huangdi asked, “The people of ancient times are said not to get old even at the age of 100. The people nowadays, however get old in their movement even at the age of 50. Is this because time has changed or because the people have lost the way of Tao?” Qibo answered, “The people at that time knew the way of the Tao. They practiced the way of yin-yang, adapted to changes well, had discipline to moderate diet, had rules in their daily lives, and did not use up their energy thoughtlessly. Therefore they could preserve their shape and spirit in whole and live one’s allotted life, and eventually died at the age of 100.”

Second paragraph p. 18
“This is why the wise man in the ancient times tasted all kinds of herbs, made all kinds of medicines, and took care of people to let them live the allotted life fully.”


“It is the role of the doctor to understand such order of the universe and work with this knowledge as the base to lead people who should die young to die old, and who should die old to be an immortal.”

Chapter 15- Damage due to Fatigue

Paragraph 3 p.2036
“When a person becomes to happy or too angry or does not have any moderation in life or becomes too tired, it damages qi. When qi is damaged, the fire gets to active, and when the fire gets too active it suppresses Earth of the spleen.”

Chapter 17 Treatment methods for damage due to fatigue

p. 2040 paragraph 1

It is said in the Inner Classic, “When one is tired, one must be raised (warmed), when one’s body is lacking, it must be added”. Fatigue is the spirit at an uneasy state due to too much work. therefore, it must be raised. The meaning of warming in treatment is raising. Raising means controlling what one eats, living an orderly life, clearing one’s mind and not worrying, and silently waiting for qi to restore to its normal state.

Professor commentary- herbal warming formula for this is “Bu zhong yi qi tang.”

On Deficiency Vexation:

Chapter 1- Causes of Consumptive Diseases

p. 2093 2nd and 3rd paragraphs

“When the heart and the lungs undergo deficient detriments, one’s complexion loses color. When the liver and the kidneys undergo deficient detriments, one figure becomes thin, and the inability to digest food well indicates that the spleen has undergone deficient detriments.”

“Many diseases or aggregations result from deficiencies. Deficiency leads to all kinds of diseases.”

Professor commentary: Spleen deficiency mentioned results in anorexia in extreme cases.

Chapter 2- Consumptive Diseases

p.2094 paragraph 1-
That one is deficient means that one’s skin, hair, flesh, muscles, pulses, bones, marrow, qi, blood, and fluid are deficient.

Paragraph 2-
Decreased intake of food, unclear mind, seminal emissions, dream emissions, tightness and pain in the muscles and bones of the waist, back, chest, and flank, a tidal fever, spontaneous sweating, phlegm, and coughs are all general symptoms of consumptive diseases.

13- Idleness causes Qi stagnation

p. 97 paragraph 1

“Idle people do not use their strength by moving their bodies, but they only sit or lie down after eating heartily. This blocks the meridians and blood vessels, triggering damage caused by overexertion and fatigue. Thus, even though a noble person (upper class) seems to be happy outwardly, his or her mind suffers; and even though a peasant is complacent in his or her mind, he or she appears to suffer outwardly. A noble person tries to satisfy one’s desires at all times, does not know abstinence, and lies down straight after eating heartily. Therefore, one should always use one’s strength, but not to the point of where one feels to tired. Working to the point where nutrient Qi and defense qi flow well and blood vessels spread out evenly is the adequate level. It is the same as the following: running water does not get stale, and hinges do not get eaten by moths.

Professor commentary: In the olden times, moths used to build nest in the hollows of a door hinge and this could interrupt its free movement.

On Essence:
Chapter 1 Essence is the Basis of the Human body

p. 62
In the Divine Pivot, it is said that: “The spirit of two people join to form a new shape. What is always made before the body is formed is called essence. “Essence is a fundamental substance of the body. It is also said that: “The fluid and humor from the five grains are combined to make oil which seeps into the holes of the bones, fills up the the bone marrow and the brain, and flows to the groins. When the imbalance of yin and yang is broken, semen leaks out of the genitals. Too much leaking out causes a deficiency, which leads to pain in the thoracic and lumbar regions, and a sore feeling in the shins. “Also, it is said; “Bone marrow is what fills the insides of the bones and the brain is the sea of marrow. when the sea of marrow is deficient, there is dizziness, ringing in the ears, soreness of the shins, and blurred vision.”

p. 63 chapter 2- Essence is the ultimate treasure
paragraph 2

It is said in the Immortal Writings, “Essence is considered a treasure in the Tao of yin-yang. When protected carefully, one will age slowly.”

Song of the classics it says: “Essence is treasured in the Tao, and one should be covert when protecting his treasure”
further paragraph p. 63 of the Song of the Classics:
“It is destiny that it should be kept a treasure, the body that must be saved, the essence must be kept important. One’s eyes get dizzy and lose sparkle when liver essence is not enough. The flesh gets thinner when lung essence is not enough. Kidney Qi decreases when kidney essence is not enough. One’s teeth become bare and hair falls out when spleen essence is not enough. Diseases occur and eventually death follows if the true essence is all used up.”

Paragraph 3 p.63
Scripture of the Yellow court:
“One is able to live long only when the essence is not let out for leakage. One must treasure and value it.”

Chapter 5- Essence should be secured thoroughly.
p. 65 paragraph 1
Inner classic: The keypoint of yin-yang is that yin is strong only when yang is well protected. This is why yin qi is said to have collapsed when yang is active. When yin is harmonized and yang is secured, essence-spirit is in control; when yin and yang are separated the essence-qi collapse.”

Chapter 6- Control desire to store essence.
p.76 3rd paragraph
Immortal writings: “The essence is wasted if desire overflows; one must truly save essence to live long.
Kidney water increases itself if one sits calmly; desire disappears of itself if one lives by oneself.”

Chapter 38- Diseases of Buddhist nuns and widows are different from those of a woman with a husband.
p. 3058 paragraph 1-
Zhu cheng of the Song dynasty used different prescriptions for the treatment of widows and Buddhist nuns. There is a reason for this. These people lived alone. Therefore, there is only yin and no yang. There is desire that cannot be met. Therefore, yin and yang always fight each other, resulting in cold and heat like warm intestinal convulsion. It becomes a consumptive disease when overlooked for a long time.

p. 3058 continued-
Essence is main for man, blood is main for women. When essence is exuberant in a man, a man thinks about a woman. when blood is exuberant in a woman, she tries to have a baby.

paragraph 2-
Diseases of a widow or Buddhist nun form due to loneliness. The symptoms of loathing wind, tiredness, cold and heat, redness in the face, stuffiness in chest, spontaneous sweating, and a string-like and long pulse on the liver pulse that is shown in the wrist pulses.

Professor- explains the location of pulses. see diagram.

On Internal Damage:

Chapter 1 Treating the diseases with food and medicine.
paragraph 1, p.2008
The key point of a comfortable physical state lies in food, and the key point of treating the disease lies solely with medicine. If one does not know how to eat properly, one can’t live long. If one does not know the qualities of medicine, one can’t treat the disease. Food gets rid of pathogens and comforts the viscera and bowels.

paragraph 3 p. 2011
Wangandao once said, “One must not confuse fatigue and food sickness and see them as one. The origin of fatigue lies in a real deficiency. food sickness is also a kind of deficiency, but it is divided into two kinds: excess and deficiency. Because although both eating nothing and eating too much are a loss of moderation, they are two different diseases.”

Professor commentary Herb- ‘Yi-zhi-ren’ hot/warm/heating sensation herb used for spleen and kidney, warms kidney to preserve jing and leakages of jing.

Chapter 10- Damage due to alcohol
Paragraph 3 p.2027
When one drinks too much, qi flows upward. It is said in Annotations, “When a person drinks too much, the lung sac is flipped and the qi flows upward and fast. Liquor is the fluid of the five grains and the essence of yeast. Although it might help people, it can also harm people since it has a lot of heat and is very toxic.”

When a person is damaged due to alcohol, the treatment must only be dispersion; when the person sweats, it is a sign of healing. Next treatment is to induce urination.

Chapter 11- Contraindications of drinking
paragraphs 1,2, 10.
Sweet foods must be banned. One must not eat noodles with course liquor as it blocks the pores. Also one must not drink water or tea when one is thirsty before becoming sober. This is because liquid entering the body at this state enters the kidneys following the alcohol, becomes toxic, and makes the person’s waist and legs painful and makes the bladder cold and painful.

On Blood:
Chapter 10- Blood Amassment syndrome
p. 195 paragraph 1
Blood amassment is accumulated blood stasis. If the patient has a heat disease caused by cold damage, yellowing body, black feces, madness and poor memory, one has blood amassment.

commentary on Triple burner issues:
If blood is accumulated in the upper burner, it causes poor memory.
If blood is accumulated in the middle burner, the patient has chest fullness, yellow body, and a preference for gargling water without swallowing it, use a Plum pit disorder decoction.
If blood is accumulated in the lower burner, the patient becomes mad, with black feces, and a solid and painful abdomen.

On How to use Medicinals:
Chapter 3 doctrines for using medicinals
p. 1584 last paragraph
When the disease becomes exuberant in the upper body and is not cured, use emetic medicine to get rid of pathogenic qi. When the disease becomes exuberant in the lower body and is not cured, induce diarrhea to remove pathogenic qi.

Chapter 11 paragraph 1, p.1589
The fundamental principles for using medicine are inducing vomiting in the spring, promoting sweat in the summer, inducing diarrhea in autumn, and warming or applying moxibustion in the winter.

Chapter 25- Simple prescriptions are better.
paragraph 1, p.1599
In ancient times doctors had used only one medicine to treat one disease. It was not until Han dynasty’s Zhang Zhongjing when used various medicines to treat one disease.

Professor commentary: Zhang Zhongjing used 3 to 5 herbs in his medicine successfully.

Chapter 28 There is no pain when it is freed

p.1601 paragraph 1
When there is pain it means something is stagnant. It is also said that, “All pain is reduced when stagnancy is removed.”

chapter 33- How to use prescriptions depending on the weight of a patient
p.1603 paragraph 1
Fat people have lots of phlegm due to deficient Qi. Therefore remove phlegm and tonify qi. Lean people have fire due to deficient blood. Purge fire and nourish yin.

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