last update 9/12/2017
Western Medicine Terminology: know over 600 terms.
Digestive system, Urinary system, Reproductive system, Nervous System, Cardiovascular system, Respiratory system,
Hematology, Lymphatic and Immune system, musculoskeletal system, Integumentary (Skin) system, sense organs, Endocrine system, Oncology, Radiology, Pharmacology, and Psychiatry.
Chemicals: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen. Body is 97% Carbon
Cellular: Protein- muscle (amino acids), Carbohydrate (gloucose)- everything, Lipid- fatty acid.
Amino acid and Glucose: from blood to capillaries into cell.
Lysosomes- from carbohydrate in cell (old protein, old lipid).
Mitochondria- independent, new DNA, different from nucleus.
Glucose- from carbohydrate (long chain) that goes to mitochondria to create energy ATP. Mitochondria is the power plant.
Diffusion- from high concentrate to low concentrate.
Filtration- high pressure to low pressure
Osmosis- low to high concentration. Solvent. No solution.
Phagocytosis- white blood cell eat pathogen
Anabolism- get fat (save energy)
Catabloism- food to create energy (spend).
Tissue is a group of specialized cells.
1. Epithelial- outside, lining of respiratory and digestion.
70% of body is muscles connective tissue- blood.
Areolar- fascia, muscle membrane
Reticular- framework that keeps organs in place.
Dense- ligaments and tendons.
Spongy- bone marrow
Hyaline Cartilage- end of bones
Elastic- nose, ears
Fibrocartliage- tensile like the discs in vertabre.
Blood, Lymph- blood is RBC w/iron and O2. Lymph is blood without RBC.
Skeletal- moves bones voluntary
Cardiac- heart beat involuntary
Smooth- GI tract. Stomach 3 layers, LI- 2 layers- involuntary.
Circulatory system: cardiovascular and lymphatic.
Healthy cell vs sick cell- urinary expel.
Hypothalamus-> pituitary gland-> hormones to blood vessels-> target cells -> function.
Hypertension/hypotension: high/low hormone amount.
Body has ability to heal and repair self if not diseased. East- harmonize yin/yang. West- fix if broken.
Epithelial tissue (3) Cutaneous- skin covering. Mucous- lining outside. Serous- smaller sacs.
Serous (3 types): pleural- lung. Pericardium- heart. Peritoneum- abdominal membrane.
Synovial- joints and spine.
Mid-sagittal- left and right
Frontal/coronal- side cut
Transverse/horizontal- half cut
Muscle- builds heat, movement, contains blood vessels, most blood in body. Shiver to survive.
Synovial membrane- create the fluid, more fluid means more cartilage.
Doral cavity is both cranial and spinal cavity.
Ventral cavity- front
Thoracic cavity- heart, lung, anterior cavity.
Diaphragm- flat muscle, moving up and down.
Abdominpelvic cavity- digestive system.
Superior, cranial, cephalic- top
Inferior, caudal- lower, tail.
Dorsal- posterior, back.
Ipsilateral, homolateral- same side
Contralateral- opposite side
Proximal- closer to body
Distal- farther from body
Deep, central- inside, center.
Otic/auricular- of the ear
Mandible- lower jaw
Cervical- neck joints
Nuchal- posterior neck
Mediastinal- middle of sternal bone
Pectoral- chest, mammary- breast.
Inguinal- hip joint crease
Gluteal- hip, seat
Axillary- arm pit
Brachial- upper arm
Cubital- around elbow
Antecubital- inner part of elbow
Palmar, volar- palm
Hypothenar- little finger side
Femoral- upper thigh
Popliteal- behind knee
Cural- leg (after knee, before ankle)
Sural, Calf- behind leg.
Dorsum- top of foot
Plantar, volar- bottom foot
Calcaneal- heel bone, calcaneous.
Digital phalangeal- toes
Hallux- big toe.
Fascicle- unit of muscles, bundle of fibers
Muscle fiber- muscle cell, a fiber within the fascicle.
Myofiliments- filaments that make up the muscle fiber: actin (thin) mosin (thick).
Sarcolemma- cell membrane
Sarcoplasmic reticulum- protein
Actin- thin myofiliment
Myosin- thick myofiliments
Motor neuron- moves to brain for muscle movement.
Sliding filament mechanism- actin and myosin sliding to contraction.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)- mitochondria w/ o2 and gloucose
Excitability- contract muscle
Extensibility- extend out, opposite contractability
Elasticity- healthy flexible muscle.
ATP causes myosin and actin to contract and pull muscles.
Convergent- thick flat tendon
Spiral- like in shoulder muscles
Circular- eye and mouth muscles
Pennate: leaf shape, muscles combining.
Agonist- prime mover
Antagonist- opposite of agonist. Example: bicep to flex arm (agonist), tricep (antagonist) to extend arm.
Synergist- helps a muscle
Fixator- keeps muscle still.
Origin- start of muscle
Insertion- finish, attach to bone.
Isometric- anti-lift (controlled lowering) example: hold baby- isotonic, put baby to bed- isometric.
Lever system- load (resistance), pull (force), fulcrum (fixed point).
Proprioceptor (2)- muscle spindle- inside muscle belly, and golgi tendon organs: inside tendon.
Palatine tonsil- catches pathogens
Epiglottis- covers air and esophagus tube
Bronchi- branches in lungs
Bronchioles- smaller branches
Vomer- divides left and right in nose.
Turdinate conchae- lateral nasal bones
Cilia- hair like projections in lungs
Sinus- air cavities, create resonance.
External respiration and pulmonary respiration- lungs
Internal respiration- tissue/cellular level.
Tissue respiration- cellular response – mitochondira/atp.
Pulmonary ventilation- air from outside to inside
Diaphragm- pulls air in
External intercoastals- chest breathing
Heimlich- choking technique.
4 functions- ingestion- food to mouth, digestion- break down of food, absorption- nutrition, defecation- expel waste from body.
Amylase- breaks down carbs
Maltose- disaccharides (2)
Lipase- enzyme break down lipid
Triglycerides- 3 tailed lipid
Carbohydrate- make by golgi body
Mineral- small nutrient
Vitamin- bigger nutrient
Water- absord directly
Bile- produced by liver, sotred in GB,helps break down fats.
Lacteal- small intestine wall, lymphatic system
Hepatic portal vein- liver as inspector of blood before it goes to heart. Enters here first.
Parotid- salivary gland behind ear
Submandibular- cheek, under neck
Sublingual- under tongue
Stomach parts: esophagus, cardiac spinchter, fundus, body, pyloric
Rugae- wrinkles in the stomach
Small intestines: duodenum- 12 finger length, jejunum- longest part of SI 6-8 meters. Ileum- long twisted part.
Pancreas- duct for GB. Liver makes bile, Gall bladder – stores bile.
Large intestines- ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus.
Cecum- lower part of L.I. contains appendix.
Cardio vascular system:
Artery- big vessels
Arterioles- smaller vessels
Venules- smaller veins
Vein- large vessels
Blood- transports gases, nutrients, hormones, heat.
Blood contains: plasma, formed elents like white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets.
Erythorocytes- red blood cells (RBC).
Leukocytes- white blood cells (WBC).
Thrombocyte- coagulation (platelets as well.
AB blood type is the universal receipiant
O type- universal donar
Vena cava- largest vein in body
Right atrium to right atrioventrical valve to tricuspid valve, then to right ventricle to Lung, to pulmonary semilunar valve- to left atrium and then left atrioventricular valve. From Lung to bicuspid valve, mitral valve- to left ventricle to aortic semilunar valve- aorta to body.
Pericardium surround heart
Epicardium is under pericardium.
Coronary vessel- blood for hearts survival
Myocardium- cardiac muscle
Heart muscle- myocardium
Endocardium- lining of heart
Papillary muscles- endocardium surrounded by papillary muscles.
Pulmonary circuit- to and from the lung.
Systemic circuit- away from heart to body and returns to heart.
Left ventricle problem: aorta
Right ventricle problem- vena cava, liver.
3 important: heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output.
Hypertension/HBP: 1. Blood speed. 2. Blood volume. 3. Blood vessel condition (can’t contain blood).
Heart Rate- BPM
Stroke volume- volume left output
Cardiac output: left ventricle per minute.
Heart conduction system: sinoatrial node- sa node- right atrium.
Atrioventricular node/AV node-between ‘Bundle of his’ nerves, between right and left chambers.
2 branches: left side of heart ‘purkinje fibers. And left side of heart. Contract right and left muscles of the heart.
Nerves control muscles- motion with skeleton
Hemiporisis- making blood
Blood cell formation: WBC, RBC, platlet, marrow.
206 bones in body
Periosteum, Sartorius- longest muscle, femour- longest bone.
If something happens to bone marrow: big problem for Liver and spleen.
Diaphasis: shaft of bone
Epiphysis- towards end of bone.
Periostrium- surrounding bone.
Blood vessels inside the bone, cell division, more blood cells.
Haverson canals- longitudinal vessels
Volmans canals- bone to other parts- horizontal.
Mediullary cavity: fat
Mediphysis- middle between diaphysis and epiphisis
Osteoblast- baby bone cell
Osteocyte- adult bone cell
Osteoclast- bone destroying cell.
Parathyroid- horomone released to add calcium to bone.
Exoskeleton: vertebrae: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, sacrum, coccyx. Shoulder girdle: 2 clavical and 2 scapular.
Process- general prominence
Tuberosity- tubercle, condyle, head.
Fossa, notch (v form), groove – valley, sinus- hollow, meatus- tube, foramen- hole.
Kidney- filter blood, renal artery.
Ureters- tubes from kidney
Urinary bladderis the bladder.
Urethra- tube from bladder to sex organ.
Homeostasis- ph balance acidic below 7/alkaline 7.1 -7.4
Stomach acid- ph 2, Clorox- ph 14.
Acid is released in urine.
Afferent arteriole- small branch of renal artery to glomerulus.
Glomerulus- betweent he two, urine created.
Efferent arteriole- exit to arteries of kidney from glomerulus.
Peritubular capillaries- capillary level.
Renal venule- small vein.
Renal vein- bigger vein.
Inferior vena cava- vena cava to heart.
Bowman capsule- contains glomerulus 2-3 million.
Renal tuble- drainage of glomerulus to collecting duct, collecting duct to renal papilla to minor calyx to major calyx- to renal pelvis.
Tubular reabsorption- reabsorption of wter, so do not go every 5 min.
Nephron- basic unit of kidney function
Renal corpuscle- nephrons
Peristalisis- one way direction
Rugae- flexible cells like ST, GB, UB.
Trigone- 2 ureters and 1 urethra.
Internal sphincter- involuntary
External sphincter- voluntary
Micturition- urination, opening of external sphincter.
Gonads: ovaries, testes
Gametes- sperm, egg
Testis- create sperm
Epididymis- where sperm grow
Vas defens- spermatic ducts
Ejaculatory ducts- seminal vesicles to prostate.
Sperm- alkaline in seminal vesicles, sperm ejaculatory duct to prostate, bulbourethral to – protective chemical.
Progesterone, estrogen, relaxin, Inhibin- hormones
Fallopian tubes- oviducts
Uterus- 3 layers: endometrium is outer, Myometrium- muscle/uterus muscle, perimerium is inner.
Vagina contains rugae. Bartholin glands lubricate vagina
Vulva- outer side
Mon pubic- cushion of pubic symphysis. Labia majora, labia minor, clitoris.
Integementary system: Skin
Epidermis- no blood
Dermis- blood (true skin)
Hypodermis- muscle, fat, fascia level.
Skin- largest organ
Liver- largest internal organ Circulatory system includes both cardiovascular system and lymphatic system. Skin is actually part of nervous system.
Brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal fluid, CSF in the meninges. Sense organs, neurotransmitters: from brain to involve muscles.
Sensory input: from sense organs to spinal cord the brain
Interpretive: brain answering questions.
Decision- motor output to muscles.
Mental and emotional.
Dendrite (cell body)-> spinal cord- axon.
Presynaptic to synaptic cleft (space) post synaptic
Brain: cerebrum: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital. Diencephalons: thalamus, pineal body, hypothalamus. Brain stem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata. Cerebellum.
Horn-columns-tracts (ascending and descending). Horn hasfront, lateral and posterior sections. Columns are the area outside the horn. Tracts are within the Horn.
Layers of spinal cord: duramater, arachnoid, Pia matter.
Cerebral spinal fluid is in the subarachnoid space.
Stomach: 3 to 5 day cells
After 18 years old: heart and nerve cells cannot rebuild.
Hair cells: everyday
Stem cells: can rebuild
Epidural space: where the ‘epidural shot” is placed.
Use on patient: Dermatomes: sensory input test at skin level.
Myotomes: motor output control test. Muscle test.
Exocrine glands release hormones, hormones are the chemical messengers. Many hormones start in the hypothalamus. Pituitary gland is below hypothalamus. Pineal gland is in the brain as well and uses melatonin. Thyroid and parathyroid is in the throat, thymus between heart and sternum, adrenals on top of kidneys, pancreatic islets- for digestion/ insulin. Ovaries and testes in female and male.
TSH- thyroid stimulating hormone
ACTH- adrenocorticotropic hormone.
GH- growth hormone
FSH- follicle stimulating hormone
LH- luteinizing hormone
ADH- anti diuretic hormone
MSH- melanocyte stimulating hormone.
Lymph, lymph vessels, lymph glands, lymphatic organs, lymph node, lymphphocytes (WBC)
Smallest to largest: lymph capillary- lymph vessels, lymph trunk, lymph ducts, right lymph duct (right side), thoracic duct (left side).
WBC are created: red bone marrow, thymus, spleen
MALT: mucosal associated lymphoid tissue: mouth to anus mucous membrane.
Peyer;s patch in small intestines, illium has WBC
Veriform appendix of large intestines has WBC.
End of Medical terminology
–Begin Anatomy Physiology–
To be continued…..
12/5/2017 Western Medical Diagnostic tests:
Head and Neck: