Western Medicine for National Acupuncture students

last update 11/11/2018 (much much more to add)

Western Medicine Terminology: know over 600 terms.
Digestive system, Urinary system, Reproductive system, Nervous System, Cardiovascular system, Respiratory system,
Hematology, Lymphatic and Immune system, musculoskeletal system, Integumentary (Skin) system, sense organs, Endocrine system, Oncology, Radiology, Pharmacology, and Psychiatry.

Anatomy- structure
Physiology- function
Chemicals: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen. Body is 97% Carbon
Cellular: Protein- muscle (amino acids), Carbohydrate (gloucose)- everything, Lipid- fatty acid.
Amino acid and Glucose: from blood to capillaries into cell.
Lysosomes- from carbohydrate in cell (old protein, old lipid).
Mitochondria- independent, new DNA, different from nucleus.
Glucose- from carbohydrate (long chain) that goes to mitochondria to create energy ATP. Mitochondria is the power plant.

Passive
Diffusion- from high concentrate to low concentrate.
Filtration- high pressure to low pressure
Osmosis- low to high concentration. Solvent. No solution.
Active
Endocytosis- into
Phagocytosis- white blood cell eat pathogen
Pinocytosis- drink.
Tissue-
Anabolism- get fat (save energy)
Catabloism- food to create energy (spend).
Tissue is a group of specialized cells.
1. Epithelial- outside, lining of respiratory and digestion.
2. Connective
3. Muscle
4. Nervous
70% of body is muscles connective tissue- blood.
Areolar- fascia, muscle membrane
Adipose- fat
Reticular- framework that keeps organs in place.
Dense- ligaments and tendons.
Compact- Bone
Spongy- bone marrow
Hyaline Cartilage- end of bones
Elastic- nose, ears
Fibrocartliage- tensile like the discs in vertabre.
Blood, Lymph- blood is RBC w/iron and O2. Lymph is blood without RBC.
Muscle tissue:
Skeletal- moves bones voluntary
Cardiac- heart beat involuntary
Smooth- GI tract. Stomach 3 layers, LI- 2 layers- involuntary.
Circulatory system: cardiovascular and lymphatic.
Healthy cell vs sick cell- urinary expel.
Hypothalamus-> pituitary gland-> hormones to blood vessels-> target cells -> function.
Hypertension/hypotension: high/low hormone amount.
Body has ability to heal and repair self if not diseased. East- harmonize yin/yang. West- fix if broken.
Membranes:
Epithelial tissue (3) Cutaneous- skin covering. Mucous- lining outside. Serous- smaller sacs.
Serous (3 types): pleural- lung. Pericardium- heart. Peritoneum- abdominal membrane.
Synovial- joints and spine.
Anatomical positions:
Mid-sagittal- left and right
Frontal/coronal- side cut
Transverse/horizontal- half cut
Mid-sagittal- symmetrical.
Flex/extend- sagittal
Abduction/aduction- frontal/coronal
Rotation- transverse/horizontal.
Muscle- builds heat, movement, contains blood vessels, most blood in body. Shiver to survive.
Synovial membrane- create the fluid, more fluid means more cartilage.
Doral cavity is both cranial and spinal cavity.
Ventral cavity- front
Thoracic cavity- heart, lung, anterior cavity.
Diaphragm- flat muscle, moving up and down.
Abdominpelvic cavity- digestive system.
Superior, cranial, cephalic- top
Inferior, caudal- lower, tail.
Ventral- front/anterior
Dorsal- posterior, back.
Medial- middle
Lateral- side
Ipsilateral, homolateral- same side
Contralateral- opposite side
Proximal- closer to body
Distal- farther from body
Deep, central- inside, center.
Superficial- outside
Frontal- forehead
Orbital- eye
Otic/auricular- of the ear
Buccal- cheek
Nasal- nose
Mandible- lower jaw
Oral- mouth
Mental- chin
Cervical- neck joints
Nuchal- posterior neck
Mediastinal- middle of sternal bone
Costal- ribs
Pectoral- chest, mammary- breast.
Abdmonical/celiac- digestive
Umbilical- navel
Inguinal- hip joint crease
Pubic- pubis
Perineal- bottom
Gluteal- hip, seat
Axillary- arm pit
Antebrachial- forearm
Brachial- upper arm
Cubital- around elbow
Antecubital- inner part of elbow
Carpal- wrist
Palmar, volar- palm
Thenar- thumb
Hypothenar- little finger side
Digital, pharangeal
Pollex- thumb
Coxal- coccyx
Femoral- upper thigh
Patellar- knee
Popliteal- behind knee
Cural- leg (after knee, before ankle)
Sural, Calf- behind leg.
Pedal- foot
Dorsum- top of foot
Plantar, volar- bottom foot
Tarsal- ankle
Calcaneal- heel bone, calcaneous.
Digital phalangeal- toes
Hallux- big toe.
Muscles:
Fascicle- unit of muscles, bundle of fibers
Muscle fiber- muscle cell, a fiber within the fascicle.
Myofiliments- filaments that make up the muscle fiber: actin (thin) mosin (thick).
Sarcolemma- cell membrane
Sarcoplasm- cytoplasm
Sarcoplasmic reticulum- protein
Actin- thin myofiliment
Myosin- thick myofiliments
Motor neuron- moves to brain for muscle movement.
Sliding filament mechanism- actin and myosin sliding to contraction.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)- mitochondria w/ o2 and gloucose
Excitability- contract muscle
Contractability- contraction
Extensibility- extend out, opposite contractability
Elasticity- healthy flexible muscle.
ATP causes myosin and actin to contract and pull muscles.
Muscle shapes:
Parallel- long
Convergent- thick flat tendon
Spiral- like in shoulder muscles
Circular- eye and mouth muscles
Pennate: leaf shape, muscles combining.
Movement-
Agonist- prime mover
Antagonist- opposite of agonist. Example: bicep to flex arm (agonist), tricep (antagonist) to extend arm.
Synergist- helps a muscle
Fixator- keeps muscle still.
Origin- start of muscle
Insertion- finish, attach to bone.
Isotonic- lift
Isometric- anti-lift (controlled lowering) example: hold baby- isotonic, put baby to bed- isometric.
Lever system- load (resistance), pull (force), fulcrum (fixed point).
Proprioceptor (2)- muscle spindle- inside muscle belly, and golgi tendon organs: inside tendon.

Respiratory system:
Olfaction- smell
Palatine tonsil- catches pathogens
Epiglottis- covers air and esophagus tube
Bronchi- branches in lungs
Bronchioles- smaller branches
Alveoli- terminal
Vomer- divides left and right in nose.
Turdinate conchae- lateral nasal bones
Cilia- hair like projections in lungs
Epistaxis- nosebleed
Sinus- air cavities, create resonance.
External respiration and pulmonary respiration- lungs
Internal respiration- tissue/cellular level.
Tissue respiration- cellular response – mitochondira/atp.
Pulmonary ventilation- air from outside to inside
Diaphragm- pulls air in
External intercoastals- chest breathing
Heimlich- choking technique.

Digestive System-
4 functions- ingestion- food to mouth, digestion- break down of food, absorption- nutrition, defecation- expel waste from body.
Amylase- breaks down carbs
Starch: polysaccharides
Maltose- disaccharides (2)
Gluocose- monosaccharaides.
Lipase- enzyme break down lipid
Triglycerides- 3 tailed lipid
Carbohydrate- make by golgi body
Protein- nitorogen
Lipid- fat
Mineral- small nutrient
Vitamin- bigger nutrient
Water- absord directly
Bile- produced by liver, sotred in GB,helps break down fats.
Lacteal- small intestine wall, lymphatic system
Hepatic portal vein- liver as inspector of blood before it goes to heart. Enters here first.
Msstication- chewing
Parotid- salivary gland behind ear
Submandibular- cheek, under neck
Sublingual- under tongue
Deglutition- swallowing
Stomach parts: esophagus, cardiac spinchter, fundus, body, pyloric
Rugae- wrinkles in the stomach

Small intestines: duodenum- 12 finger length, jejunum- longest part of SI 6-8 meters. Ileum- long twisted part.
Pancreas- duct for GB. Liver makes bile, Gall bladder – stores bile.
Large intestines- ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus.
Cecum- lower part of L.I. contains appendix.
Cardio vascular system:
Artery- big vessels
Arterioles- smaller vessels
Capillaries- microscopic
Venules- smaller veins
Vein- large vessels
Vasodilatation- open
Vasoconstriction- closed
Blood- transports gases, nutrients, hormones, heat.
Blood contains: plasma, formed elents like white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets.
Erythorocytes- red blood cells (RBC).
Leukocytes- white blood cells (WBC).
Neutrophile- neutral
Eosinophile- acidic
Basophile- alkaline
Thrombocyte- coagulation (platelets as well.
AB blood type is the universal receipiant
O type- universal donar
Blood vessels-
Vena cava- largest vein in body
Right atrium to right atrioventrical valve to tricuspid valve, then to right ventricle to Lung, to pulmonary semilunar valve- to left atrium and then left atrioventricular valve. From Lung to bicuspid valve, mitral valve- to left ventricle to aortic semilunar valve- aorta to body.
Pericardium surround heart
Epicardium is under pericardium.
Coronary vessel- blood for hearts survival
Myocardium- cardiac muscle
Heart muscle- myocardium
Endocardium- lining of heart
Papillary muscles- endocardium surrounded by papillary muscles.
Pulmonary circuit- to and from the lung.
Systemic circuit- away from heart to body and returns to heart.
Left ventricle problem: aorta
Right ventricle problem- vena cava, liver.
Systole- contraction
Diastole- (relaxation)
3 important: heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output.
Hypertension/HBP: 1. Blood speed. 2. Blood volume. 3. Blood vessel condition (can’t contain blood).
Heart Rate- BPM
Stroke volume- volume left output
Cardiac output: left ventricle per minute.
Heart conduction system: sinoatrial node- sa node- right atrium.
Atrioventricular node/AV node-between ‘Bundle of his’ nerves, between right and left chambers.
2 branches: left side of heart ‘purkinje fibers. And left side of heart. Contract right and left muscles of the heart.

Sketetal System:

Nerves control muscles- motion with skeleton
Hemiporisis- making blood
Blood cell formation: WBC, RBC, platlet, marrow.
206 bones in body
Periosteum, Sartorius- longest muscle, femour- longest bone.

If something happens to bone marrow: big problem for Liver and spleen.

Diaphasis: shaft of bone
Epiphysis- towards end of bone.
Periostrium- surrounding bone.

Blood vessels inside the bone, cell division, more blood cells.
Haverson canals- longitudinal vessels
Volmans canals- bone to other parts- horizontal.
Mediullary cavity: fat
Mediphysis- middle between diaphysis and epiphisis
Osteoblast- baby bone cell
Osteocyte- adult bone cell
Osteoclast- bone destroying cell.
Parathyroid- horomone released to add calcium to bone.
Exoskeleton: vertebrae: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, sacrum, coccyx. Shoulder girdle: 2 clavical and 2 scapular.
Process- general prominence
Tuberosity- tubercle, condyle, head.
Fossa, notch (v form), groove – valley, sinus- hollow, meatus- tube, foramen- hole.

Urinary System-
Kidney- filter blood, renal artery.
Ureters- tubes from kidney
Urinary bladderis the bladder.
Urethra- tube from bladder to sex organ.
Homeostasis- ph balance acidic below 7/alkaline 7.1 -7.4
Stomach acid- ph 2, Clorox- ph 14.
Acid is released in urine.

Kidney-
Cortex- outise
Medulla- inside
Afferent arteriole- small branch of renal artery to glomerulus.
Glomerulus- betweent he two, urine created.
Efferent arteriole- exit to arteries of kidney from glomerulus.
Peritubular capillaries- capillary level.
Renal venule- small vein.
Renal vein- bigger vein.
Inferior vena cava- vena cava to heart.
Bowman capsule- contains glomerulus 2-3 million.

Renal tuble- drainage of glomerulus to collecting duct, collecting duct to renal papilla to minor calyx to major calyx- to renal pelvis.
Tubular reabsorption- reabsorption of wter, so do not go every 5 min.
Nephron- basic unit of kidney function
Renal corpuscle- nephrons
Peristalisis- one way direction
Rugae- flexible cells like ST, GB, UB.
Trigone- 2 ureters and 1 urethra.
Internal sphincter- involuntary
External sphincter- voluntary
Micturition- urination, opening of external sphincter.

Reproductive system:

Gonads: ovaries, testes
Gametes- sperm, egg
Spermatozoa- sperm
Oocyte- egg
Offspring- children

Male-
Testis- create sperm
Epididymis- where sperm grow
Vas defens- spermatic ducts
Ejaculatory ducts- seminal vesicles to prostate.
Sperm- alkaline in seminal vesicles, sperm ejaculatory duct to prostate, bulbourethral to – protective chemical.

Female-
Ovaries- egg
Progesterone, estrogen, relaxin, Inhibin- hormones
Fallopian tubes- oviducts
Uterus- 3 layers: endometrium is outer, Myometrium- muscle/uterus muscle, perimerium is inner.
Vagina contains rugae. Bartholin glands lubricate vagina
Vulva- outer side
Mon pubic- cushion of pubic symphysis. Labia majora, labia minor, clitoris.

Integementary system: Skin

Epidermis- no blood
Dermis- blood (true skin)
Hypodermis- muscle, fat, fascia level.

Skin- largest organ
Liver- largest internal organ Circulatory system includes both cardiovascular system and lymphatic system. Skin is actually part of nervous system.

Nervous system:

Brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal fluid, CSF in the meninges. Sense organs, neurotransmitters: from brain to involve muscles.

Sensory input: from sense organs to spinal cord the brain

Interpretive: brain answering questions.
Decision- motor output to muscles.
Mental and emotional.
Dendrite (cell body)-> spinal cord- axon.

Presynaptic to synaptic cleft (space) post synaptic

Brain: cerebrum: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital. Diencephalons: thalamus, pineal body, hypothalamus. Brain stem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata. Cerebellum.
Horn-columns-tracts (ascending and descending). Horn hasfront, lateral and posterior sections. Columns are the area outside the horn. Tracts are within the Horn.
Layers of spinal cord: duramater, arachnoid, Pia matter.
Cerebral spinal fluid is in the subarachnoid space.
Stomach: 3 to 5 day cells
After 18 years old: heart and nerve cells cannot rebuild.
Hair cells: everyday
Stem cells: can rebuild
Epidural space: where the ‘epidural shot” is placed.
Use on patient: Dermatomes: sensory input test at skin level.
Myotomes: motor output control test. Muscle test.

Endocrine system:

Exocrine glands release hormones, hormones are the chemical messengers. Many hormones start in the hypothalamus. Pituitary gland is below hypothalamus. Pineal gland is in the brain as well and uses melatonin. Thyroid and parathyroid is in the throat, thymus between heart and sternum, adrenals on top of kidneys, pancreatic islets- for digestion/ insulin. Ovaries and testes in female and male.

TSH- thyroid stimulating hormone
ACTH- adrenocorticotropic hormone.
GH- growth hormone
Gonadtropic hormones
FSH- follicle stimulating hormone
LH- luteinizing hormone
Prolactin
ADH- anti diuretic hormone
Oxytocin hormone
MSH- melanocyte stimulating hormone.

Lymphatic system:

Lymph, lymph vessels, lymph glands, lymphatic organs, lymph node, lymphphocytes (WBC)

Smallest to largest: lymph capillary- lymph vessels, lymph trunk, lymph ducts, right lymph duct (right side), thoracic duct (left side).

WBC are created: red bone marrow, thymus, spleen
MALT: mucosal associated lymphoid tissue: mouth to anus mucous membrane.
Tonsil: WBC
Peyer;s patch in small intestines, illium has WBC
Veriform appendix of large intestines has WBC.

End of Medical terminology

–Begin Anatomy Physiology–
To be continued…..

Biochemistry and Nutrition

Physical Examination

Head and neck:

Pharmacology
Schedule of Drugs
Schedule 1:

Ketobemidone is a powerful opioid analgesic. Its effectiveness against pain is in the same range as morphine, and it also has some NMDA-antagonist properties imparted by its metabolite norketobemidone.
Allylprodine is an opioid analgesic that is an analog of prodine. It was discovered in by Hoffman-La Roche in 1957 during research into the related drug pethidine.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opiate typically used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects. Medically it is occasionally used to relieve pain and as a form of opioid replacement therapy alongside counseling.

Schedule II
Opioid derivatives:
Ethylmorphine is an opioid analgesic and antitussive.
Hydrocodone, also known as dihydrocodeinone, is a semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.
Metopon is an opioid analogue that is a methylated derivative of hydromorphone which was invented in 1929 as an analgesic
Thebaine, also known as codeine methyl enol ether, is an opiate alkaloid, its name coming from the Greek Θῆβαι, Thēbai, an ancient city in Upper Egypt.
Opioids:
Anileridine is a synthetic analgesic drug and is a member of the piperidine class of analgesic agents developed by Merck & Co. in the 1950s.
Dihydrocodeine is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic prescribed for pain or severe dyspnea, or as an antitussive, either alone or compounded with paracetamol or aspirin. It was developed in Germany in 1908 and first marketed in 1911.
Diphenoxylate, or diphenoxylate hydrochloride, is a centrally active opioid drug of the phenylpiperidine series that is used for the treatment of diarrhea.
Levomethorphan is an opioid analgesic of the morphinan family that has never been marketed. It is the L-stereoisomer of racemethorphan.
Methadone is an opioid medication. An opioid is sometimes called a narcotic. Methadone reduces withdrawal symptoms in people addicted to heroin.
Meperidine is used to help relieve moderate to severe pain. It may also be used before and during surgery or other procedures. Meperidine belongs to a class of drugs known as opioid (narcotic) analgesics and is similar to morphine. It works in the brain to change how your body feels and responds to pain. (Demerol)
Morphine is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. It belongs to the group of medicines called narcotic analgesics (pain medicines). Morphine acts on the central nervous system (CNS) to relieve pain.
Meperidine is used to help relieve moderate to severe pain. It may also be used before and during surgery or other procedures. Meperidine belongs to a class of drugs known as opioid (narcotic) analgesics and is similar to morphine. It works in the brain to change how your body feels and responds to pain.
Oxycodone is a semisynthetic opioid synthesized from thebaine, an opioid alkaloid found in the Persian poppy, and one of the many alkaloids found in the .
Stimulants:
Methamphetamine (contracted from N-methylamphetamine) is a strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug
Amphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, and obesity.
Phenmetrazine is a stimulant drug that was previously used as an appetite suppressant, but has since been withdrawn from the market.
Methylphenidate is used to treat attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Depressants
Amobarbital is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative. It has sedative-hypnotic properties. It is a white crystalline powder with no odor and a slightly bitter taste. It was first synthesized in Germany in 1923.
Secobarbital sodium is a barbiturate derivative drug that was patented in 1934 in the US. It possesses anaesthetic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative
Pentobarbital is in a group of drugs called barbiturates (bar-BIT-chur-ates). Pentobarbital slows the activity of your brain and nervous system. Pentobarbital is used short-term to treat insomnia. Pentobarbital is also used as an emergency treatment for seizures, and to cause you to fall asleep for surgery.

Schedule III
Phendimetrazine is a sympathomimetic amine, which is similar to an amphetamine. It is also known as an “anorectic” or “anorexigenic” drug. Phendimetrazine stimulates the central nervous system (nerves and brain), which increases your heart rate and blood pressure and decreases your appetite.
Methyprylon is a sedative of the piperidinedione derivative family developed by Hoffmann-La Roche. This medicine was used for treating insomnia.
Nalorphine, also known as N-allyl-normorphine, is a mixed opioid agonist–antagonist with opioid antagonist and analgesic properties.
Amobarbital is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative. It has sedative-hypnotic properties. It is a white crystalline powder with no odor and a slightly bitter taste. It was first synthesized in Germany in 1923.
Secobarbital sodium is a barbiturate derivative drug that was patented in 1934 in the US. It possesses anaesthetic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative.
Pentobarbital It can treat tension, anxiety, nervousness, and trouble falling asleep (insomnia). It can help patients relax before surgery or medical procedures. In addition, it can treat epilepsy and other seizures.

Schedule IV
Chloral hydrate, a sedative, is used in the short-term treatment of insomnia (to help you fall asleep and stay asleep for a proper rest) and to relieve anxiety and induce sleep before surgery. It is also used after surgery for pain and to treat alcohol withdrawal.
Chloral betaine, also known as cloral betaine, is a sedative-hypnotic drug. It was introduced by Mead Johnson in the United States in 1963.
Ethchlorvynol is a sedative and hypnotic medication developed by Pfizer in the 1950s. In the United States it was sold by Abbott Laboratories under the tradename Placidyl. Placidyl was available in 200 mg., 500 mg., and 750 mg. strength capsules
Meprobamate is a carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety
Paraldehyde is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules. Formally, it is a derivative of 1,3,5-trioxane. The corresponding tetramer is metaldehyde. A colourless liquid, it is sparingly soluble in water and highly soluble in ethanol. used to treat certain convulsive disorders.
Phenobarbital is a barbiturate, nonselective central nervous system depressant which is primarily used as a sedative hypnotic and also as an anticonvulsant
Chlordiazepoxide is used for: Treating anxiety disorders and withdrawal symptoms due to alcoholism. It is also used to reduce fear and anxiety before undergoing surgery. It may be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor
Diazepam is a benzodiazepine (ben-zoe-dye-AZE-eh-peens). It affects chemicals in the brain that may be unbalanced in people with anxiety.
Flurazepam (marketed under the brand names Dalmane and Dalmadorm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties.
Clorazepate (marketed under the brand names Tranxene and Novo-Clopate), also known as clorazepatedipotassium, is a benzodiazepine. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties.
Pemoline stimulates the central nervous system (brain and nerves). The exact way that pemoline work is unknown. Pemoline is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Pemoline may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.
Pentazocine is a synthetically-prepared prototypical mixed agonist–antagonist narcotic (opioid analgesic) drug of the benzomorphan class of opioids used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.
Oxazepam is a short-to-intermediate-acting benzodiazepine. Oxazepam is used for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia and in the control of symptoms of depression, and alcohol withdrawl.

Schedule V
– Compounds containing limited amounts of codeine, dihydrocodeine, ethylmorphine, opium, or diphenoxylate in combination with other nonnarcotic active ingredients. (In all cases, the allowable concentration of these agents is loser than the compounds included in Schedule III.
– Diphenoxylate and atropine preparations (e.g, Lomotil).
Diphenoxylate (INN, BAN) (brand name Diocalm), or diphenoxylate hydrochloride (USAN), is a centrally active opioid drug of the phenylpiperidine series that is used for the treatment of diarrhea.
Atropine: It can treat heart rhythm problems, stomach or bowel problems, and certain types of poisoning when injected. It can also decrease saliva before surgery and dilate the pupils before an eye exam.

Antibiotics
Antibiotics
Arsphenamine, also known as Salvarsan or compound 606, is a drug that was introduced at the beginning of the 1910s as the first effective treatment for syphilis, and was also used to treat trypanosomiasis.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine …
Sulfonamide is the basis of several groups of drugs. The original antibacterial sulfonamides are synthetic antimicrobial agents that contain the sulfonamide group.
Streptomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. This includes tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, endocarditis, brucellosis
Bacitracin It can prevent infection of minor cuts, burns, and scrapes when applied topically. In other forms it can also treat bacterial infections.
Nitrofurans are synthetic chemotherapeutic agents with a broad antimicrobial spectrum; they are active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes as an eye ointment to treat conjunctivitis.
Polymyxins are antibiotics, with a general structure consisting of a cyclic peptide with a hydrophobic tail. They disrupt the structure of the bacterial cell membrane by interacting with its phospholipids This medication is used to treat bacterial infections (such as blepharitis, conjunctivitis) of the eye. It contains 2 antibiotics.
Chlortetracycline is a tetracycline antibiotic, the first tetracycline to be identified. It was discovered in 1945 by Benjamin Minge Duggar working at Lederle Laboratories under the supervision of Yellapragada Subbarow.
Cephalosporins are bactericidal (kill bacteria) and work in a similar way to penicillins. They bind to and block the activity of enzymes responsible for making.
Pleuromutilin and its derivatives are antibacterial drugs that inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria by binding to the peptidyl transferase component of the 50S subunit of ribosomes
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes respiratory tract infections, skin infections, chlamydia
Isoniazid, also known as isonicotinylhydrazide (INH), is an antibiotic used for the treatment of tuberculosis.
Vancomycin is used to treat an infection of the intestines caused by Clostridium difficile, which can cause watery or bloody diarrhea.
Streptogramins are a class of antibiotics. Streptogramins are effective in the treatment of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, two of the most rapidly growing strains of multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Cycloserine, sold under the brand name Seromycin, is an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis. Specifically it is used, along with other antituberculosis and UTI.
NOVOBIOCIN (Cathomycin) is a new antibiotic isolated from cultures of Streptomyces spheroides 1 and effective in vitro against a variety of gram-positive
rifamycins are bactericidal and inhibit bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, suppressing RNA synthesis
Metronidazole is used to treat bacterial infections of the vagina, stomach, skin, joints, and respiratory tract. … Do not drink alcohol while you are taking metronidazole and for at least 3 days after you stop taking it. You may have unpleasant side effects such as fast heartbeats
Nalidixic acid is used for: Treating urinary tract infections caused by certain bacteria. Nalidixic acid is an antibacterial. It works by killing sensitive bacteria in the urinary tract by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.
Trimethoprim (TMP) is an antibiotic used mainly in the treatment of bladder infections. Other uses include for middle ear infections and travelers’ diarrhea.
Lincomycin is an antibiotic that fights bacteria. Lincomycin is used to treat severe bacterial infections in people who cannot use penicillin antibiotics. Lincomycin is used only for a severe infection. This medicine will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu.
Fusidic acid (Neosporin) is prescribed for skin infections caused by germs called staphylococcal bacteria. Such infections include impetigo, infected cuts and grazes, and infected dermatitis. … Fusidic acid cream and sodium fusidate ointment are antibacterial preparations which usually clear …

Fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by certain Streptomyces species, although it can now be made by chemical synthesis. For UTI.
MUPIROCIN OINTMENT – TOPICAL (mue-PIR-oh-sin) … USES: Mupirocin is used to treat certain skin infections (e.g., impetigo). … SIDE EFFECTS: This medication may cause burning, stinging, itching or pain at first as your body adjusts to it
Carbapenems are antibiotics used for the treatment of infections known or suspected to be caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Their use is primarily in people who are hospitalized.
Oxazolidinone antibiotics are a class of synthetic antibacterial agents that act as a protein synthesis inhibitor on the ribosomal 50S subunit of the bacteria.
Monobactams are β-lactam compounds wherein the β-lactam ring is alone and not fused to another ring, in contrast to most other β-lactams. They are effective only against aerobic Gram-negative bacteria
Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic used in the treatment of systemic and life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive organisms.
Amoxicillin is used to treat infections caused by bacteria, such as ear infections, bladder infections, stomach ulcers etc. Includes amoxicillin side effects, interactions and …
Ampicillin is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat a number of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis,
Dicloxacillin is a narrow-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class. It is used to treat infections caused by susceptible (non-resistant) Gram-positive bacteria.
Nafcillin sodium is a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class. As a beta-lactamase-resistant penicillin,
Methicillin: A semisynthetic penicillin-related antibiotic, also known as Staphcillin, that once was effective against staphylococci (staph) resistant to penicillin …
Oxacillin is an antibiotic in the penicillin group of drugs. It fights bacteria in your body. Oxacillin is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as a staphylococcal (also called “staph”) infection. Oxacillin may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Quinolone antibiotic medications include: Ciprofloxacin (Ciloxan Ophthalmic and Cipro) Levofloxacin (Levaquin and QUIXIN Ophthalmic) Lomefloxacin (Maxaquin) Moxifloxacin (Avelox)
Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections. This includes tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire’s …
β-lactam antibiotics are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics, consisting of all antibiotic agents that contain a beta-lactam ring in their molecular structures. This includes penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems
Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics used mainly to treat serious infections in a clinical setting.
Glycopeptide antibiotics inhibit bacterial cell wall formation by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis. They are used for treating methicillin-resistant staphylococcus

Tetracycline is an antibiotic that fights infection caused by bacteria. Tetracycline is used to treat many different bacterial infections of the skin.
Macrolide: One in a class of antibiotics that includes Biaxin (Clarithromycin), Zithromax (Azithromycin), Dificid (Fidoximycin), and Erythromycin. The macrolides inhibit the growth of bacteria and are often prescribed to treat rather common bacterial infections.
Ansamycins is a family of bacterial secondary metabolites that show antimicrobial activity against many Gram-positive and some Gram-negative bacteria,

A lipopeptide is a molecule consisting of a lipid connected to a peptide. Bacteria express these molecules. They are able to self-assemble into different structures. Certain lipopeptides are used as antibiotics.
Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections. This includes tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire’
fluoroquinolones are a family of broad spectrum, systemic antibacterial agents that have been used widely as therapy of respiratory and urinary tract
Pyrimethamine is a synthetic derivative of ethyl-pyrimidine with potent antimalarial properties.
Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. It is recommended intravenously as a first-line treatment for complicated skin infections,

Gastrointestinal drugs:

Loperamide: Imodium, Fad, and Select.Diarrhea medication
It can treat diarrhea. It can also decrease the amount of drainage in patients with ostomies.

Diphenoxylate: Lomotil , Diarrhea medication

Cloidine: Catapres, Duraclon, Kapvay, and Nexiclon. Sedative and antihypertensive drug
It can treat high blood pressure. Certain formulations can also treat ADHD and cancer pain.

Cholestyramine : Questran and Prevalite. Cholesterol medication
It can lower high cholesterol levels. It can also treat severe itching caused by liver disease.

Colestipol: Colestid. It can lower cholesterol levels.

Ocreotide: Sandostatin. It can lower levels of excess growth hormone (acromegaly). It can also treat diarrhea associated with certain types of tumors.

Ondasetron: Zofran and Zuplenz. 5-ht3 antagonist
It can prevent nausea and vomiting.

Granisetron: Sancuso and Granisol. 5-ht3 antagonist
It can prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy, including cisplatin. It can also treat and prevent nausea and vomiting after surgery.

Promethazine: Phenergan, Phenadoz, and Promethegan. Antihistamine
It can treat allergies and motion sickness. It can be used as a sedative before and after surgery and medical procedures. This medication can also help control pain, nausea, and vomiting.

Metoclopramide: Reglan. Gut motility stimulator
It can treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It can also treat gastroparesis in patients with diabetes.

Hyoscine: Transdermscop, Kwells, is an antispasmodic medicine which is taken to relieve cramps in the stomach, intestines or bladder.
In particular, it helps to ease bloating and the spasm-type pain that can be associated with irritable bowel syndrome and diverticular disease

Dronabinol: Marinol. It can treat or prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer medications when other medications do not work. It can also increase the appetite of people with AIDS.

Dexamethasone: Ozurdex, Baycadron, and Maxidex. Steroid
It can treat inflammation.

Lorazepam: Ativan. Sedative
It can treat seizure disorders, such as epilepsy. It can also be used before surgery and medical procedures to relieve anxiety.

Omeprazole: Omesec, Prilosec, and Select. Proton-Pump inhibitor
It can treat heartburn, a damaged esophagus, stomach ulcers, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Pantoprazole: Protonix. Proton-Pump inhibitor
It can treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and a damaged esophagus. It can also treat high levels of stomach acid caused by tumors.

clarithromycin: Biaxin Antibiotics
It can treat and prevent infections. It can also treat duodenal ulcers caused by H pylori.

Cimetidine:Tagamet Antacid and antihistamine
It can reduce acid in the stomach to treat ulcers and acid reflux.

Ranitidine: Zantac and Select. Antacid and antihistamine
It can treat and prevent heartburn. it can also treat stomach ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and conditions that cause too much stomach acid.

Nizatidine: Axid. Antacid
It can treat ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and conditions that cause too much stomach acid.

Famotidine: Fluxid, Pepcid, and Select. Antacid and antihistamine
It can treat ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and conditions that cause excess stomach acid. It can also treat heartburn caused by acid indigestion.

Misoprostol: Cytotec. Hormone
It can prevents stomach ulcers caused by anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs).

Sucralfate: Carafate. Antacid
It can treat ulcers.

Bethanechol: Urecholine. Urinary retention medication and saliva production stimulator
It can treat urinary and bladder problems by emptying the bladder and increasing urination.

Neostigmine: Muscle strengthener
It can treat myasthenia gravis. It can also reverse the effects of anesthesia.

Domperidone: Domperidone, sold under the brand name Motilium among others,
is a peripherally selective dopamine D₂ receptor antagonist that was developed by
Janssen Pharmaceutica and is used as an antiemetic, gastroprokinetic agent, and galactagogue

cisapride: Propulsid. Cisapride is a gastroprokinetic agent, a drug that
increases motility in the upper gastrointestinal tract. It acts directly as a serotonin 5-HT₄ receptor agonist and indirectly as a parasympathomimetic

Metaclopromide: reglan. Gut motility stimulator
It can treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It can also treat gastroparesis in patients with diabetes.

Prednisolone: deltasone. Steroid
It can treat many diseases and conditions, especially those associated with inflammation.

Azathioprine: Imuran and Azasan. Immunosuppressive drug
It can prevent organ rejection after a transplant. It can also treat rheumatoid arthritis.

Methotrexate: Trexall and Rasuvo. Immunosuppressive drug and chemotherapy
It can treat cancer of the blood, bone, lung, breast, head, and neck. It can also treat rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis.

Sulfasalazine:Azulfidine. Anti-Inflammatory
It can treat ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Cyclosporine: Neoral, Sandimmune, Gengraf, and Restasis. Immunosuppressive drug
It can prevent organ rejection after transplant in its oral form. It can also treat rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. In eye drop form it can treat chronic dry eye.

Microbiology

Internal Medicine Section I.

Internal medicine III fall 2018

About Administrator

Coach Matt Stampe is a Database Administrator and I.T. professional. In the world of Bodywork, he has been a Massage Therapist licensed under the Virginia Board of Nursing, and is currently a student at Virginia University of Oriental Medicine (VUOM.edu). He has taught hundreds of people Authentic Yang Tai Chi Kung fu for over 25 years. He was President of the Virginia Commonwealth Universtiy (VCU) Martial arts club, Secretary and Treasurer of USA chapter of Yongnian Association under Sifu He Weiqi. Experience includes: Kung fu schools: Omei Shaolin (Sifu Lu Xiaoling) 3rd degree Black Sash, Chinese Martial Arts Institute (Sifu Clarence Burris), United States Wushu Academy (Coach Christopher Pei), and Qi Elements (Sifu Nancy Bloomfield), Former Head Coach: Virginia Beach Parks and Recreation centers(Adults Tai Chi), Hope Chinese school (kids classes), NOVA MMA gym in Arlington (kids classes), and VUOM Martial Arts Tai Chi club (Fairfax). He has positively impacted peoples lives whether for health, sport, strength, combat, and spirit. As a true combat athlete, he teaches methods so people can be confident to defend themselves.
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