Neijia, Nei Dan, Chinese Medicine also: TCM Basic Theory, Diagnosis, and History Notes

work in progress- come back later.last update: 8/26/2015

About Neijia (Internal Arts) and TCM:


In the article by Tom Bisio he makes a important statement of 21 things internal martial artist need to know. #21 being the most important he says here:

#21. Real knowledge of Nei Gong requires a thorough understanding of the channels and collaterals. Once the vessels and collaterals are understood, you must observe the patterns.

Teachers of Nei Gong and the internal martial arts emphasize three key points that are critical to learning Nei Gong and internal martial arts correctly.

It is necessary to have a thorough understanding of the Jing-Luo in order to practice Nei Gong correctly (particularly the eight extra channels).
It is necessary to have a thorough understanding of the postures and forms, the internal and external body alignments, and the methods of moving and changing.
The mind must be tranquil and calm. The Mind-Intention must permeate all postures and movements.

In training and application, these three elements, the three points of the triangle above, operate as an organic and indivisible whole. Interestingly, these points are echoed repeatedly in passages from Nei Gong Zhen Chuan (Authentic Classic of Nei Gong):

Real knowledge of Nei Gong requires a thorough understanding of the vessels and collaterals. [23]
Once the vessels and collaterals are understood you must observe the patterns. After one is familiar with the channels and collaterals it is necessary to understand that there are certain patterns that pertain to the whole body. If the patterns are not understood, all discussion of the channels and collaterals is empty talk. [24]
Once Zhenqi (True Qi) is sufficient in the interior, its external expression will manifest. Although it is hidden inside and unmoving, numinous brilliance is expressed outwardly through the face so that people cannot look at it directly. The qi stirs from the form, while form follows the qi. The mind is the master of the spirit and the spirit is the master of the qi. Therefore, when the Shenqi takes residence, the form will no longer be a burden and one will be like a dragon soaring in the clouds, a bird flying in the emptiness of the sky, coming suddenly and going. [25]

Even in TCM school we discuss this in small bits when learning about the channels, Dr. Hoyoon Chong writes when discussing Ren and Du Mai:

“The Eight Extras & Qigong Practice
For qigong and Inner Alchemy practice, the Du, the Ren, the Chong and the Dai are the most important
of the Eight Extraordinary Meridians.
The Du Mai flows from the tip of the coccyx up the spine, over the head, and ends in the upper
part of the mouth.
The Ren Mai flows from the perineum up along the front mid-line of our torso, and ends in the lower mouth.
In the Microcosmic Orbit practice, we link the Ren and the Du meridians into a single continuous circuit –
which is how energy circulated when we were in our mother’s womb.
The Chong Meridian flows vertically deep within the body, along the front of the spine, and
is most closely associated with Yuan Qi. The Chong has a close resonance with –
if not an actual equivalence to – the Shushumna Nadi described in Hindu Yogic traditions.
It is our energetic core. The Dai Mai circles the waist, and is the only horizontally-flowing meridian.
As such, it acts as a kind of “belt” – containing the other vertically-flowing meridians.
In certain Kan/Li qigong practices, we learn to spiral the Dai Meridian up to connect with
the energy of the planets,
stars and galaxies, and then down to connect with the core of the earth.

 In Nei Dan Qigong training, when you have filled up the Qi in these two vessels and can effectively circulate the Qi in them, you have achieved the “Small Circulation.” In order to do this, you must know how to convert the essence stored in the kidneys into Qi, circulate this Qi in the Governing and Conception vessels, and finally lead this Qi to the head to nourish the brain and Shen (spirit).

o In Qigong society, this vessel and the Governing vessel are considered the most important among the Qi channels and vessels, and must be trained first. It is believed that there is usually no significant Qi stagnation in the Conception vessel. However, it is important to increase the amount of Qi you are able to store, which also increases your ability to regulate the Yin channels.

o These two are linked to a huge number of processes and treatments in the body. In some qigongs and in Daoist spiritual practice, they also form part of the work called the xiaojiutian, or the Small Heavenly Orbit, where the practitioner moves qi through them in a circuit, sometimes stopping at specific points for specific work there. This is a technique that has been much misunderstood in the West. It shouldn´t really be part of health qigong. It´s Daoist training for spiritual work. The older traditions will prepare and train the body and mind in various ways for a long time so that the orbit opens up softly and gently by itself before doing anything conscious with it. In many systems that have come in fragments to the West, the Small Heavenly Orbit is done forcefully, or simply with the person trying to push qi through a tense body and mind, a practice that is much riskier for both physical and mental health than the softer one.

• Various kinds of qigong and Tai Chi work the fascia and flows of the front and back of the body, including the channels. It´s generally seen as much more effective to have training that focuses on working the fascia, releasing it and relaxing it, rather than just working qi in the channels themselves: if the fascia is tense and not moving as one piece, the channels themselves will still be blocked, no matter how much one tries to move energy through them. In Daoist energy work, the Ren and Du are quite superficially placed. There are several further depths into the body with channels. Another one, next layer in from the Ren, and also one of the Eight Extras, is the Chongmai – the Thrusting Channel. But there are other flows even deeper than these, that form core work in classical Daoist work. Good training, however, will take the practitioner deeper in layers, letting the body open naturally, like a flower – much the same way a skilled acupuncturist will allow the system of a patient to open up too.

o Because of their importance to health, the Governing vessel and the Conception vessel are considered the two most important Qi channels to be trained in Qigong, especially in Nei Dan.
 Training related to these two vessels includes
1. How to fill them with Qi so that you have enough to regulate the twelve channels
2. How to open up stagnant areas in these two vessels so that the Qi flows smoothly and strongly
3. How to effectively direct the Qi to nourish the brain and raise up the Shen
4. How to effectively govern the Qi in the twelve channels, and nourish the organs
5. How to use your raised Shen to lead the Guardian Qi to the skin and strengthen the Guardian Qi shield covering your body.
 In Nei Dan Qigong training, when you have filled up the Qi in these two vessels and can effectively circulate the Qi in them, you have achieved the “Small Circulation.” In order to do this, you must know how to convert the essence stored in the kidneys into Qi, circulate this Qi in the Governing and Conception vessels, and finally lead this Qi to the head to nourish the brain and Shen (spirit).”


Marcus Brinkman has been a great advisor on several points for me with TCM in relation to the 12 channels. In one thread he says:

“”The complexity of the 12 part meridian system is much easier to understand when you break it down into its three respective parts, (open, close, pivot). Taiyang opens, Yangming closes and Shaoyang pivots. For the laymen this may be understood as the (yangming) ventral surfaces closing or contracting, while the (taiyang) dorsal surfaces are opening or expanding.
The biggest take away for martial artist according to this theory, is to conceptualize the shaoyang pivot function, between the body’s contracting front and expanding back. In effect, the open/pivot/close energetics describe a body’s (dorsal) hard shell like back and (ventral) soft underbelly. If one is not concerned with this astrological model of the meridian system (tiangan/dizhi), or energetic model of human anatomy and physiology, there is another simpler take away concept, which martial artist should be aware of; That is, the body’s coronal division, between its ventral and dorsal surfaces is considered an articulating division between the front and back of the body. It is like a giant energetic hinge whereby energy is absorbed in the front and in order to bring the defense energies to the back. This is like a golden ratio wherein body shape and mechanics may be seen to coincide with the traditional energetic model. The vortical mechanics of reeling silk, rise fall overturn etc..are therefore considered to propagate the movement of Qi through the open, close, pivot mechanics of the body and thus circulate it in an orbital fashion.”


TCM and Diagnosis, Channels, and History:




























Types of Diagnosis varied based on the Traditional school or knowledge:

5 Elements
Qi, Blood, and fluids
Shan han Lun- 6 Levels
3 burners: cardio, digestive, urogenital.

Ba gang:
8: yin –yang,

Neoplastic (tumors)
Idiopathic, Intoxication, Latigenic (side effect)

History, narrow down the problem
Length: short, long
Lifestyle:- stress, work, diet

Subjective- patient says
Objective- what tests are showing
Assessment- Diagnosis
Plan- treatment

Facial Expressions
Body language
Skin complexion
Balance, stepping, shoulders, back , scoliosis
Motor ticks
Skin- dry, weating.
Lumps, bumps, cysts, masses, broken bones, abdomen.

Interrogation Process
Rapport. Good manners, make patient feel comfortable.
Question style: ex. Bowle movements. How many times per day?

1. Hot/cold
2. Sweating
3. Head and Body
4. Stool and Urine
5. Food and Drink
6. Chest
7. Hearing
8. Thirst
9. Old diseases
10. Cause
11. Women- menses: slow, fast, light, heavy.
12. Children- measles/pox.

Cold: fear of cold, aversion to cold, Shivering
Heat: mild fever, severe fever, sensation of heat.

Vacuity Heat- Yin Deficiency
Vacuity Cold- Yang Deficiency
Repletion Heat- Yang Excess
Repletion Cold- Yin excess.

Tai yang: Neck and back
Yang Ming- forehead
Shao yang: Temples/side
Tai Yin: abdominal fullness, sweating.
Shao Yin- Teeth
Jue yin- behind eyes, vertex, nausea.

1. Exterior level- Release the exterior herbs.
2. Internal heat: Cooling herbs for the fire.

Color: face, eyes, ears, finger nails
Spirit: manifestation of Qi, blood, five viscera.
-pathological change will result in abnormal color or spirit of the body.
5 colors.
Yellow-Red: wind
Blue/black- Pain
White- Cold
Yellow- moist/damp
Very Red: Blod pain, heat.

Essence: natural make-up, growth, genetics.
Good gauge for development of disease.

Essence and Spirit:
Essence- seen.
Spirit cannot be seen.
They are mutually supportive.
Spirit is born from the pre-natal essence.
Heart stores the spirit.
Spirit as reflected in the eyes.

Spirit: healthy body, complexion, sparking eyes, calm, regulated, breathing, appropriate response.

Spiritless: dull complexion, weak body, dull eyes, slow movement, panting, confusion, vexation.

Over weight: deficient Qi, Phlegm congeals. Phelgm is a sticky matter in body goes up. Damp goes down it is watery.
Under weight: Yin blood Deficiency,

Cancer: heat pattern, chronic inflammation, toxic heat, phlegm heat. Immune system gets weak, cancer cells get through.
Body signs: swelling, abdomen, Face, limbs.

Palpataion Areas:

Heaven- Temple artery at Tai yang point “Qi of head”
Man- Artery at ears TB 21 “Qi of ear and eyes”
Earth- Artery undernose ST 30, “Qi of mouth/teeth”

Heaven: Cun Kou , wrist palm “Qi of Lung”
Man: Sen men (HT7) “Qi of Heart”.
Earth: LI 4 Hegu Qi of chest center:

Heaven Liv. 10/Liv. 3 Qi of Liver.
Man: ST 42 Qi of SP/ST.
Earth: KI 3 Qi of Kidney.

3 main:
Stomach- Neck
Lung- Wrist
Stomach- Foot.
Old notes: TCM theory and history:

10/4 notes:
Yin and Yang theory
3 pillars of TCM: yin yang theory, 5 element theory, Qi theory.
Yin Yang: It is the start and end of TCM treatment.

Historical: I-Ching book of changes and Neo Confucianism of the Song, Ming, and Qing dynasties.
Taoist to explain: relationship, pattern, change. one word: nature.
how things function in universe, natural change, thinking.
yin- cold, dark, passive side of mountain.
yang- warm, light, active side of mountain.

Body: water and fire. upper/lower, front/back. heaven down, earth up.
Nature of yin-yang:
1. cyclic movement: day/night, peaks and bases, tides, change, development.
2. 2 states of density of matter: yang is immaterial, yin is dense.
3. the 4 aspects of the yin-yang relationship.
4 aspect of yin yang relationship: applies to medicine.
1. Opposition of yin yang. struggle and control of each other. excess of yin, leads to deficiency of yang.
2. Interdependence of yin yang. oppose but mutually depend on each other, no up then no down, no cold no heat.
3. Mutual consuming of yin yang. not fixed but in a state of mutual consumption and support. consumption of yin leading to gaining of yang. production of yin nutrients consume yang energy.
4. Intertransformation of yin yang. yang transforms to yin, yin transforms to yang. severe heat gives rise to cold. a high fever changes to a chill.

TCM doctor treatment protocol yin-yang:
1. tonify yang.
2. tonify yin.
3. eliminate excessive yang.
4. eliminate excessive yin.
Drink yin yang tang- hot water then cold water in glass. each morning for long life.
The deeper the illness, the more yin yang is separated. bring patient to a healthy state by yin yang balance. fix the broken balance.

10/12: 5 Elements in TCM
5 elements as movement:
Wood- bend and straighten. solid.
Fire- flares up. heat.
Earth- grows, reaps. nutrition.
Metal- molds, hardens. solidify and congeal.
Water- moves down. fluidity.
Wood- outward and expansive, Metal- contracts.
Fire- heat up, Water, cool down.
Earth represents stomach and and commander to send nutrition to all organs.
Seasons: spring wood, summer fire, autumn metal, winter water. earth influence them all.

5 element interrelationship:
cosmological sequence- formation:
1. Water, kidney- energy root. jing. /North.
2.Fire. South.
3. Wood.- east, sun rise.
4. Metal- west, sun set.
5. Earth. center.
Healthy state: generation sequence and controlling sequence.
Unhealthy imbalance: over-acting sequence and Insulting sequence.
Generating sequence: mother and child concept. example: wood generates fire.
Controlling sequence: balance maintained. wood controls earth to not over act.
Over-acting: not normal, excessive behavior.
Insulting- disregard, unrespectful, reversing order of controlling sequence.

5 elements in color and emotion:
Water- Black, emotion is fear.
Fire- Red, emotion: impatience or over joy.
Earth is Yellow, worry is emotion.
Wood is green, emotion is anger.
Metal is white, emotion is sadness.

In TCM to be a great doctor you need two things:
1. Shen Wen: heart-mind doctor (psychology) help patients mental state and emotions.
When the Shen (mind) escapes the heart there will be mental issues with patient.
2. Nutritionist. Train them to eat right.
5 element flavors: 5 elements in herbal and diet treatment.
Metal is pungnet. pungent scatters pathogens.
Water is salty. salty flows down, treats swelling. controls constipation.
Earth is Sweet. Sweet tonifys deficency. stops pain.
Fire is bitter. Bitter clears heat. damp-heat and rebelious qi.
Wood is sour. Sour generates Yin. it is astringent, controls diarrhea.

5 elements in Physiology:
Zhang-Fu organs.
Fire: heart, small int. pericardium, san jiao.
Water- kidney and urinary bladder.
Wood- liver and gall bladder.
Earth- stomach/spleen.
Metal- lung large intestines.
Generating Sequence:
Heart helps the Spleen nourish body (state of mind while eating).
Spleen helps the lungs (gets most nutrition).
Lung qi descends to kidney (helps fluid movement).
Kidney yin nourishes Liver blood (produce blood).
Liver qi sends blood to heart for circulation.
Controlling Sequence:
Liver controls spleen
spleen controls kidney (body fluids)
lungs control Liver.
kidneys control heart
heart controls lungs (blood and qi).
fire and water become perfect balance.
Drink yin yang tang- hot water then cold water in glass.
The deeper the illness, the more yin yang is separated. bring patient to a healthy state by yin yang balance. fix the broken balance.
Cosmological sequence: 5 is associated with earthly phenomenon is Tao philosophy.
Stomach/spleen- nourish all the organs. earth (control center)becomes a balance between fire and water. Earth is the main support for heart and kidneys.
A major surgery can affect the stomach/spleen deeply. it is important for a patient to eat beef post surgery to get faster recovery.

Vertical axis:
Shen (mind) heart fire.
Qi (energy) yang spleen earth.
Blood (essence) yin kidney water.

5 Elements in Pathology:
Over acting sequence
insulting sequence
Generating sequence
Example- Liver qi stagnation: stress, tangling/blocking. overacting affects spleen qi, not eating normally.
spleen overacts on kidney: spleen transform dampness. spleen will hold accumulated dampness and obstruct kidney to excrete fluid or retention of fluid.
example Insulting:
spleen insults liver- liver function goes out of order. Overflow liver qi, which consumes qi. or impair liver qi.
Generating: 2 possibilities:
1. Mother is not nourishing child.
2. child is taking to much from mother.
example: If liver blood is defiencent it will not nourish the heart. heart will take to much from the liver, liver will be low in blood.

4 Ways in TCM:
1. over-acting sequence: when one is in excess.
2. Generating: child from mother.
3. generating: mother fails child.
4. Insulting: child rebels parent. (earth insults wood) backward.

5 elements in Diagnosis:
You will have to pay attention to patient: tone of voice, emotional state, smell, face color, these things tell you something.
5 element Smells and Tissues:
wood: rancid. tissue is sinew.
fire: scorched. tissue is vessels.
earth: fragrant. tissue is muscles.
metal: rotten. tissue is skin.
Water: putrid. tissue is bones.

5 elements in Acupuncture:
Treatment is in accordance to the 4 sequences:
1. wood example: liver blood issue-> is mother at fault: kidney. check kidney.
is lung overacting? check lung.
is fire/heart taking to much from wood/liver?
is liver being insulted by earth/spleen?
2. Treatment according to 5 element transporting points:
each meridian has 5 points in relation to the elements. well, spring, stream, river, sea.
example: someone has stomach/earth issue:
1. Lung channel- wood point of lung channel (mother point of channel).
2. Liver channel- wood point of liver channel (mother channel).

Qi Transformation: vital substances
Qi: to exist. Vital force, vital power.
Qi cant be proven scientifically yet, but we know that if qi did not exist then herbs would not work.
Character of Qi is steam and rice. Steam is yang/spirit something you can not touch. And rice is yin/bone something you can touch. Yang is air, yin is dense.
Xing: shape. Xing is the opposite of Qi.

Qi in medicine:
Zhong qi- gathering Qi (chest) heart and lung.
Yuan Qi- original qi, lower burner (kidneys).
Organ Qi: unique action. Ex.: liver- it produces and stores blood and helps smooth blood flow.
When imblances: liver qi stagnation caused by stress.
Jing- Essence
Chinese character is rice and character for clear/blue sky, refined.
This is in relation to sperm as essence. Forbids to much sexual activity. Do not ejaculate to often.
3 types:
1. Pre-heaven
2. Post-heaven
3. Kidney-essence
Pre-heaven is from the mother and father and developed as a fetus. If you are born with strong parents your pre-heaven jing will be strong. If it is weak from weak parent, you must guard and protect yuan essence as life will be harder. Qi of parents determine the babies qi.
Signs of jing/essence issues:
• Young but have grey hair or balding.
• Lower back pain
• Impotence
• Premature ejaculation.
Take care of pre-heaven essence, do not damage it at an early age via bad diet, drugs, alcohol, over sex.
Qigong and Taijiquan help to protect Pre-heaven Qi. Many athletes understand preserving jing-essence for competition like boxers and those in various championship matches.
Post-heaven Essence:
Post heaven essence is from-
1. Food: grain qi, veggies, meats, herbs.
2. Drink: water, teas, juices, milk.
Root of Post heaven essence is in the stomach and spleen.
When working optimally there will be good absorption of nutrition.
Malnutrition is imbalance, over weight is over absorption.
Function of Essence- Kidney Essence.
• Growth, production and development.
• Basis of kidney qi.
• Produce marrow.
• Constitutional strength.
• Basis of 3 treasures: jing-Qi-shen.
Pre-heaven + post heaven essence= kidney essence.
Genetics + food= kidney essence.
Jing disorder- infertility.
Marrow in TCM: that which makes growth.
“Sea of marrow” is the brain.
“Sea of essence” is the bone marrow.
Poor memory, lethargy are samples of Essence deficiency.
Constitution is acquired or born with. A weak constitution results in prone to illness, colds, flu, immune system weak.
3 treasures
Shen (mind) in heart and brain is the upper.
Qi (energy) in stomach/spleen is the middle.
Jing (essence) kidneys is the base.
Qi types:
1. Yuan qi or “Original Qi”: motive force, kidney Qi, conduit for 3 burners, transform blood. Comes out of source points. “yuan source points” in acupuncture are used for helping that organ. Ex. Lung source point will help lung issues.
2. Gu Qi or “Food qi”- in stomach and spleen, origin of qi and blood, middle burner, chest to lungs with zong qi, in heart with blood.
3. Kong qi, “Air qi”- Qi from air and oxygen. In lungs and goes to chest and heart.
4. Zong Qi or “Gathering Qi”- nourish heart and lungs, respiration, controls speech, circulation to extremities, aids kindeys and yuan qi.
5. Zhen Qi “True Qi”- originals from zong qi in lungs, assumes two forms as wei qi and ying qi.
6. Ying Qi or “Nutritive Qi”- nutrients for the organs, blood, and run in meridians and blood vessels.
7. Wei Qi or “Protective qi”- root in the lower burner (kidney), nourished in the middle (St/Sp), spread via the upper (lungs), warms muscles, protects against pathogens, opens and closes pores, circulats 50x in 24 hours. In the body between skin and muscles.
8. Zhong qi or “central Qi” is the True Qi of the Stomach and spleen. Transforms and transforms, rising qi.
9. Zheng Qi or ‘Upright Qi”- all Qi that play a defensive role vs. external pathogens. Defensive Qi, nutritive qi, and kidney essence. Xie Qi is the opposite of Zheng Qi, Xie Qi is pathogenic factors.
Lungs-Kong qi->
Zong qi +Yuan Qi (kidney)= Zhen Qi (Ying Qi+ Wei qi)
Spleen-Gu Qi->

6 functions of Qi
1. Transforming: transform air and food to useful materials.
2. Transporting: transport materials in right direction.
3. Holding: hold in original area.
4. Raising: spleen rise up.
5. Protecting: wei qi, immunity.
6. Warm-up: maintain body heat homeostasis.
Direction of Qi movement:
1. Lung- descends to kidney, ascends wei qi and sweat.
2. Liver- disperses smooth flow in all directions.
3. Kidney- ascends to lung.
4. Spleen- ascends to chest.
5. Stomach- descends.
6. Heart- descends to meet with kidney qi.
Pathology of Qi
1. Qi deficiency
2. Qi sinking
3. Qi stagnation: blockage.
4. Qi rebellious- reverse direction.
1. Spleen/Stomach: main building block of blood.
2. Lung qi- role in food qi to heart to make qi move blood.
3. Food Qi- transform in blood in heart, heart governs blood.
Spleen-> lungs + heart= blood.
Function of blood:
1. Transports food qi from the heart.
2. Make blood through marrow and kidney essence.
3. Nourish body.
4. Circulate nutritive qi.
5. Moisten the body.
6. House the mind.
7. Determines menstruation.
Relation of Blood with Internal organs:
Heart- governs
Spleen- helps makes
Liver- stores and distributes.
Lungs- assist heart, boosting/pushing blood, also infuse qi into blood.
Kidneys- production from Yuan qi, kidney essence transform into blood.
Qi-Blood relationship
1. Qi generates blood
2. Qi moves blood
3. Qi holds blood
4. Blood nourishes Qi.
Blood pathology
1. Blood deficiency- Bi-syndromes, dryness, essence issues.
2. Blood heat- hot, itchy, rashes.
3. Blood stasis- menstrual issues.
Sweat is considered another type of “Blood”. Sweating can help move excess water, but too much can exhaust blood.
Yellow sweat- an ill person will have yellow sheets or clothes when sweating.
Body Fluids
Source of body fluids is in food and drink.
Chinese name is Jin Ye. Jin is fluids and ye is liquid.
Jin are ligh and watery, circulate with Wei qi and moisten the skin and muscles.
Ye- and heavier liquids and circulate with nutritive qi in interior, brain, spine (CSF), marrow, joints, and sense organs.
Spleen- transform and transport jin ye.
Lungs- diffuse body fluids.
Kidney- transform, separate, excrete.
Small intestines- filter pure and impure fluids, impure go down.
Triple warmer- transform, transport, and excrete.
Stomach- source of fluids via food and drink.

Triple Warmer:
Upper- “mist” help lung disperse.
Middle- “muddy pool” impure flids. Stomach/spleen.
Lower- “drainage ditch” kidneys and intestines.
Pathology of Bodily fluids:
1. Deficient: dryness, dehydration.
2. Excess; edema, phlegm, dampness.
Shen- aka Mind:
3rd treasure of jing-qi-shen.
Consciousness, memory, congnition, intelligence, thinking, insight, sleep, wisdom, ideas, affections, feelings, senses.
Chinese character is of a ghost or spirit.
Important to protect Shen via relaxing and letting go.
Transformation of Qi:
Original qi is the motive force for transformation of Qi.
• It is a dynamic force driving all movement and transformation.
• Triple burner allows original qi emerging between the kidneys.
• Ming men- “life gate”, ancient image is of a fire to cook rice. Minister fire is between kidneys, it sustains heat in body.
• Fire gate of life is called minister fire, it is the root of pre-heaven qi, source of post heaven qi, and foundation of original qi.
• Essence is yin, it provides the fire of the gate of life.
• Fire of gate of life is yang, it provides the warmth for necessary processes.
Dynamics and physiology transformation of Qi:
Qi mechanism-
4 movements: ascend, descend, enter, exit.
-Stomach and spleen as central axis, center of body physiology.
-Liver and lungs are the outer wheel.
-Heart and kidneys as root: gynecology/sex.
Triple burner transformation of Qi-
Upper jiao- ascends.
Middle jia- goes both up and down.
Lower jia- descends.
• Promotes making things go through, letting out, and excrete.
• Ensures Qi and water passages are open.
Qi assumes different forms:
1. Aggregation- material body is Yin.
2. Dispersal- moves, transforms- yang.
Yuan Qi is “motive force”.
• Gathering qi “zong qi”
• Transform food Qi
• Kidney activity
• Circulation in yuan source points
• Movement- the dynamic force of movement.
San jiao or triple burner/warmer is the “special envoy”, it moves the motive force aka “minister fire” to the internal organs and 12 regular meridians from the ming men “gate of life”. Qi transform essence, essence transforms Qi.

The lower burner provides warmth, while the upper burner provides qi. They work as a yin yang for each other.

Qi forms include:
• Transformed
• Changed
• Transported
• Condensed
• Dispersed
4 movements: Enter, exit, ascend, descend.
Ascend and decend is the vertical axis while enter and exit is the horizontal axis.
Ascend/descend: Enter/exit:
Upper burner: heart and lungs skin and muscles
Middle burner: liver stomach spleen joints and fat tissue
Small and large intestines
Lower burner: bladder and kidneys membranes, bones, essence, mind.
Superficial: greater yang and greater yin (Tai yang and Tai yin)
Hinge- lesser yang and terminal yin (shao yang and jue yin)
Deep- bright yang and lesser yin (yang ming and shao yin)

4 proper qi transformations: movement, birth, growth, and reproduction.
Qi: blood, essence, movement of substances, excretion of body fluids, digestion of food, excretion of waste, moisten sinews and bones, moisten skin, triple burner role.
Jing: enter and exit is controlled by “Po” the corporeal soul. Essence into play/regulate physiological processes.
Cou Li- space and texture between skin and muscles. Energetic space of defensive qi. The triple warmer helps all three layers of the skin, cou li and muscles which are porine to stagnation, obstruction, entering and exiting of pathogens (wind, cold, heat, etc.) into the spaces and cause aches and pains.
Gao- fat tissue, belly is related to spleen. Enter and exit of qi into fat/adipose tissue.
Excessive entering: over weight.
Excessive exiting: weight loss.
Huang- membranes. Fascia, sinews, connective tissue, stroma, peritoneum, menstrerium, and omentum. Need to have good enter/ext of qi to prevent pain.
5 energetic layers from surface to deep:
Skin- LU
Blood vessels- HT
Sinew- LV
Muscles- SP
Bones- KD
Relaxing: Liver (ascend to head and chest) + Lungs (descend to organs and bones)= develop Qi and blood to become balanced.

Pathology for qi transformation:
Spleen ascends- failure of this may cause diarrhea
Stomach descends- failure of this can cause hiccup, burp, vomit.
Liver spreads- failure of this causes irritability, moodiness.
Lung descends- cough and asthma is the reverse of direction.
Heart descends- menstrual and sex issues is when reverses.
Kidney ascends- failure of this causes heat, hot flashes.
Zhang Fu organs: Heart, Liver, Lung
Zhang- store essence
Fu- function “administration center”
Heart is emperor fire
San jiao/PC- is minister fire.
Yang organs fill and empty, Yin organs store vital substances: qi, blood, jing, fluid, and shen.
Empty fire- dryness due to yin deficiency.
Western medicine views organs materially and anatomically.
Eastern medicine view is of a complex energy system.

Body types when meeting patients:
Fat person- more damp energy.
Skinny person- heat.
Pale skin- lung deficiency.
Dark skin- abundant kidney qi.
Organ and tissues:
Heart governs blood and blood vessels and tongue/taste.
Liver stores blood and supports sinews and eyes/sight.
Lung gathers Qi, it influences fluids, the skin and nose/smell.
Spleen- governs food qi, holds blood, and supports the muscles and mouth/gums and teeth.
Kidneys- stores essence, influences fluids. Supports bones and ears/hearing.
Athletes need more liver formulas as “sinews is also muscles, tendons, ligaments and cartilage”.
Big Eyes: liver issues
Tongue is pointy- heart issue.
Losing taste- spleen issue.
Organs and their emotion and “soul”
Liver- Anger and Ethereal soul “Hun”.
Heart- Overjoy and Mind “Shen”.
Spleen- Pensiveness and intellect “Yi”.
Liver- Worry and Corporeal Soul or “Po”.
Kidney- Fear and will power “Zhi”.
Organs and the 5 basic external and internal causes of disease:
Liver- affected by wind.
Heart- heat.
Spleen- dampness.
Lungs- dryness
Kidney- cold

5 organs and their manifestations in the body and fluids:
Heart manifests in the complexion, sweat.
Liver manifest in nails, tears t moisten eyes.
Lungs- body hair, nasal mucus.
Spleen- lips, saliva.
Kidney- hair, spittle.
Mind is also heart.
Joy- excessive joy imbalances the heart.
Heart governs blood, menstruation, houses the shen, controls the vessels.
heat blood stasis- hardening of arteries.

heart affect complexion of face:
heart blood deficiency: dull pale face.
heart yang deficiency: bright white face.
Heart blood stasis: purplish/dark face.
Heart heat: Red face.

Joy mental state: it is a mental state that favors a smooth function of the internal organs and mental faculties.
-excessive excitement and mental stimulation injures the heart.
-unrestrained feelings- stir up the minister fire to flow up and over stimulate mind.
-excessive joy over stimulates the heart causing enlarged heart.
-Sudden joy causes Yang Qi to float, over dilation of heart and vessles, pulse becomes slow and empty.
Dreams are caused by excessive or deficient heart blood.

Lungs are sensitive and they loath cold.
Lungs control 100 vessels.
-diffuse qi to the ‘Cou li’ space (between muscle and skin), help defensive qi fight external pathogenic factors (EPF).
-diffuse body fluids to cou li as sweat.
-Regulate water passage via descend Qi to kidneys for breathing, kidneys ascend fluids to lungs for moisture.
-lungs descend fluids to the bladder for urination.
-Qi can ascend, descend, enter and exit cause of lungs.
-Lungs make sure all organs get qi and fluids.
-They fight EPF at the level of skin.
Regulate Nasal mucus:
Normal is a properly moistens and lubricated nose with normal mucus secretion.
Impaired Lung: diffused and descending impairment causes stuffy nose, accumulated build up.
Lung heat/phlegm heat- thick yellow mucus.
Dry Lungs- mucus is insufficient.

Lungs- Emotion of worry/sad:
Worry will “knot” up the Lung Qi causing tightness in the chest, tension in the shoulders.
grief and sadness: deplete the Lung Qi making a breathless feeling, tired. pulse will be weak, voice weak.
All three of those emotions cause Qi stagnation in the chest, a type of tightness.
Liver is a resolute organ.
Liver loathes wind.
Liver stores blood, regulates smooth qi flow, helps sinews, assists eyes, associated with anger.
Affects menstration:
1. Liver blood is normal: menstration is normal.
2. Liver blood deficiency: scanty or amenorrhoea.
3. Liver blood stasis: painful period.
4. Liver blood heat: heavy period.

Liver ensures smooth Qi flow and the opposite is Liver qi stagnation. Liver helps the other organs in supporting their qi direction. It helps spleen energy rise, heart descend, stomach down, kidneys up.
Liver rising up to heavy: red face, temper, stroak, repressed anger all affect liver.
Liver controls sinews. If liver blood deficient: muscle cramps, numbness, if liver blood stasis muscles will be stiff.
Wind affects Liver, wind pathogen is pain that moves around not fixed in one place.

Lung govern Qi and respiration. It controls the meridians and blood vessels. They assist in the diffuse and descend of qi and body fluids. They regulate physiological activities. Regulate water passages, maintain the space between skin and muscles (cou li), manifest in the body hair, open the nose, control nasal mucus, worry and sadness affect lungs.
Lungs govern the qi in the channels, nutritive qi. Deep breathing during acupuncture can assist in the treatment.
The lungs ensure the ascending and descending of qi, entering and exiting of qi, qi to the organs, free movement of qi, regulate qi, and communication to kidneys.
Transforms and transports food
Governs the muscles and limbs
Qi ascends
Helps produce blood.
Yi (intellect)
Mouth and lips, saliva are nourished by spleen/stomach.” Xian” is saliva thinner from spleen, “Tuo” is thicker but from kidney.

Eating- preferred way to eat is 5 to 6 small meals, rather than 3 huge meals, this creates less load on spleen and stomach.
Spleen determines appetite, nourishment/malnourishment.
ST36 Zusanli- tonify spleen Qi.

Spleen- clear fluids, up to the body, lungs and skin. Turbid fluids down to intestine.
Spleen transports food essences to all muscles. More you move limbs the stronger you get. If spleen is weak, there will be weariness in muscles in extreme cases atrophy.

Pensiveness- to much thinking, worry, obsessiveness injures the spleen, knots qi in the middle burner.
“Spleen loathes dampness”
“Governs the 4 limbs”
“Root of post heaven Qi”
“Spleen likes Dryness” (especially weight management.

-stores essence
-governs birth growth, reproduction and development.
-marrow in brain and bones.
-governs water and the reception of qi.
-Opens in the ears.
-controls lower orifices.
-Will (Zhi)
-Gate of Life “minister fire’.
Control of water- urination, lung moisture, spleen.
Nourish the ears: baby has good ear will be intelligent
Kidney deficiency- deafness and tinnitus.
Zhi- will power, determination, tenacity, single mindedness. Opposite is timid, no courage.
Function of the Gate of Life:
-root of yuan Qi
-source of fire
-lower burner and bladder.
-sexual function.
“Kidneys control open and close”
“Kidneys loath dryness”
“Kidneys control strength, skill, and stamina.”
“Kidneys are the root of pre-heaven”
Yin organs interrelationships
1. Heart and lungs: heart is blood, and Lungs is Qi. Heart and lungs are important for athletes. Gathering qi is in the chest. Herbs to tonify blood.
2. Heart and Liver: Liver blood deficiency will cause heart blood deficiency aka depression.
Heart/mind/shen- recognizes and controls emotions, the liver ensures smooth flow of emotions. Ethereal soul of the liver is the ‘coming and going” of the mind.
3. Heart and Kidney- essence is the basis of a stable mind, and mind influences the essence. Menstral cycle: heart/kidney is essential. Kidney is the origin of menstral bloods ebb and flow. Heart controls Yin/Yang, Yin to yang in ovulation, govern Qi, commander of blood storage. Tian gui is the name of kidney/uterus blood.
4. Liver and Lungs: Lung qi descends, liver qi ascends, it is a mutual relationship. Stagnation occurs, lung qi going up is cough.
5. Liver and spleen: Liver stores blood, Spleen makes blood. Liver flow assists spleen, spleen helps liver qi flow. Digestive points for spleen/liver/middle jiao: ST36, LI4, LV3.
6. Liver and Kidneys: Blood-Liver, Essence- kidneys. Stamina. Essence helps make blood. Gynecology- kidney origin of Tian gui and menstral blood, liver provides blood to the uterus. Liver and Kidney are close to Ren mai and Chong mai channels.
7. Kidney-Liver: Deficient kidney essence: dizziness, blurred vision, Tinnitus.
Kidney Yin deficient- causes Liver deficient Yin.
Liver deficient Yin- hyperactivity
Liver yang rising: dizziness, headache, blurred vision.
Deficient Liver blood: cause weak kidney, deafness, nocturnal emission.
8. Spleen and Lungs: Lungs govern the Qi and decend down, spleen Qi goes up to lungs. Deficient spleen qi can manifest as phlegm in the lungs.
9. Spleen and Kidneys: Kidneys is the source of pre-heaven Qi and heat to spleen. Spleen is the root of post heaven Qi, and help kidneys excrete. Spleen supplements Qi to kidneys.
10. Lung and kidneys: Lungs send Qi down to kidneys, kidneys send qi to lungs for moisture.
11. Spleen and heart- spleen makes blood (food qi to heart), Heart governs blood (nourishes spleen), heart yang moves blood, supports spleens transformation of food essence.

Stomach- controls receiving, transport of food essence, descending of qi, origin of fluids.
As a reciever of food, it holds it down, maintains appetite, aka “sea of food and drink”.
Stomach controls ripening and rotting of food: breaks down food, origin of food qi. strong stomach indicates good prognosis, tongue coating reflects good stomach qi.
Food essence is transported by the stomach to entire body and limbs, if impaired it will make patient tired and weak. Stomach transports qi of food to the pulse. Some ‘dirty dampness’ will be transported to the tongue producing a normal coating.
The stomach qi descends to the dregs of the small intestines. Stomach is in the center and descending of its qi is essential. It is assisted by the Liver-Qi.
“If the Stomach Qi is strong the 5 yin organs are healthy. If the stomach qi is weak, they will decline.”- Yu Jian Yuan (1585-1664)
“The qi of the organs relies on stomach Qi to reach the lung channel”-Simple questions chpt. 10.
The stomach is in the origin of fluids through its process of maceration of food and drink. In relation to fluids, it is the gate to the kidneys. a deficiency of stomach fluids is the beginning of a process leading to yin deficiency. the stomach likes wetness, dislikes dryness. a stomach deficient in fluid stirs up thirst. Eating late at night will take fluids from organs while they try to rest.
stomach is yang, spleen is yin, stomach descends, spleen ascends, stomach likes wet, spleen likes dry. If spleen to damp it’s qi cannot rise, if stomach too dry its essence cannot descend. stomach is prone to heat/fire, spleen is prone to cold.
Small intestines:
Small intestines controls receiving and transforming. it separates fluids. clear fluids go to spleen, turbid fluids go to bladder as urine and colon as stool. This separation is helped by the kidneys which provide kidney yang qi and heat.
Small intestines gives us power of discernment, to make decisions with clarity. The closest link with the heart can be found in our activities that require clear judgement. Gall bladder assists with courage to decide, heart is oversee decision making, small intestines discriminates in the clear decision process.
Large intestines control passage and conduction. They transform stools and reabsorb water. It moves the digested food from small intestines and conducts it downward for excretion. It reabsorbs some fluids. It has the capacity for “letting go” and not dwell on the past. The Lung Qi goes down to assist the large intestines to move stool down. Otherwise an imbalance could cause constipation. There is a relationship with the skin as well.
Gall Bladder stores and excretes bile. It mentally has to do with making decisions, and it controls the sinews. The minister fire warms the gall bladder so GB can aid in digestion. Flow of bile depends on flow of Liver qi, and GB qi aids in ascending of Liver Qi. Smooth flow of bile helps the stomach digest, and spleen transform. GB’s decision making helps all 11 organs. GB provides Qi to the sinews to ensure proper movement and agility. GB 34 yanglingquan assists sinews in acupuncture. GB helps one make decisions. Excessive movement of ethereal soul will cause mania, deficient movement will be depression. GB has an influence of sleep quality.
Urinary Bladder removes water by qi transformation. It receives water from the small intestines, transforms it to urine, qi and heat (and dirty fluids) are provided by the kidneys. Heart qi helps the urine goe down. The Bladder divergent channel goes through the heart. The liver channel is near the end of the urethra and helps smooth flow of urination. Lung descending of qi assists the urine flow. Mentally the bladder is associated with negative emotion of jealousy and long standing grudges.
Triple warmer: mobilizes yuan Qi. It controls the transportation and penetration of Qi. It controls water passages and excretion of fluids. TW controls the ascend-descend-enter-exit of Qi in all parts of body, cavities, membranes, joints, and organs. Gathering Qi in upper burner (mist), nutritive qi in middle burner (maceration chamber), and Defensive qi in lower burner (drainage ditch). It is in charge of irrigation by transporting fluids and penetration of qi. Mentally it has much to do with the ‘hinge’ between being outward towards others and inward toward self.
6 Extra yang organs and their organ relationship:
1. Uterus- kidney and liver
2. Brain- kidney
3. Marrow- kidney
4. Bones- kidneys
5. Blood vessels- heart
6. Gall bladder – GB
Uterus: regulates menstruation (transport) and houses the fetus during pregnancy (storage).
Conception and penetrating vessels flow through the uterus.
Conception brings qi, yin and essence to the uterus.
Penetrating vessel brigs blood to uterus.
Kidney is the origin of “tian gui” or menstrual blood. Theheart governs blood, heat qi descends and meets kidney-essence to form tan gui. Heart Qi- descends to promote discharge of menstrual blood and eggs. Heart qi is responsible of the transformation of yang to yin and vice versa in menstrual cycle. The liver stores blood which fills the uterus. Spleen makes blood which supplements tian gui. Stomach is related to the uterus via the Penetrating vessel.
Channel from heart to uterus is Bao mai, channel from kidney to uterus is Bao lou.
Brain: controls intelligence. It is the “sea of marrow” and controls sight, hearing, smell, taste.
Marrow: contributes to making blood. It nourishes the brain.
Bones: bones are the structural framework for the body. They are the cavity that houses marrow and are functionally related to the kidneys.
Blood vessels: they house the blood and are the vehicle of circulation of qi and blood. They transport refined food essence, qi and blood all over the body.
Gall bladder- store a pure essence of bile.
4 seas:
Sea of Qi: lungs.
Sea of blood: penetrating vessel.
Sea of food: spleen/stomach.
Sea of marrow: brain.

Acupuncture anatomy:
1 cun= thumb wide.
4 fingers- 3 cun
Wrist to fossa- 12 cun
Brow to EOP- 12 cun
9 cun- axial to elbow.
8 cun- center of chest to end of collar bone.
8 cun- nipple to nipple.
8 cun- umbilical to sternocostal region
5 cun- public syphisis to umblical
19 cun- center of patella to greater trochanter.
18 cun- epicondle of femer to greater trochanter.
16 cun- lateral malleolus to center of patella.
13 cun- lateral malleolus to medial condyle.
Transporting points: wu xing points
Jing well- fingertips/otes. Antique points.
Ying spring- webbing area of hand and feet.
Shu stream- wrist and ankles.
Jing river- between wrist and elbow or ankle and knee.
He Sea- elbow or knee area.
Yuan source- 3rd or 4th points.
K1 and laogong- good from crazy and insomniac people.
Luo points- internal/external related. Yinorgan tonified, yang EPF (external pathogenic factor) expelled.
Xi cleft- acute pain in channel. Where qi and blood can pool.
Front Mu/alarm points:
• Jing at birth
• Starts at mouth
• Jing decends to kidney, LV, PC, HT, SP creating Mu points (process follows 5 element flow) regulates qi.
Back Shu points-
Tonify qi, combustion of jing by ming men generates essence qi which is carried by zhng/fu by Du and UB meridians.
Gall bladder meridian- stitches front and back meridians. Shang Han Lun- EPF not all the way in all the way out. Herbs will help.
6 level cold in shan Hun Lun: depth-
Tai yang-
Yang ming
Shao yang
outside skin layer
———– skin level
under skin layer
Tai Yin
Shao yin
Jue yin- deepest level

recent TCM history China, USA, California.
1912- end of Qing dynasty
1929- china banned everything non-scientific.
1942- Mao banned TCM for his followers.
1949- Communism takes over in China.
1953-1954: saw a resurgence of TCM, hospitals and universities in major cities. “Symbol of China”.
1966-1976: Cultural revolution, old tradition and followers of TCM persecuted and ridiculed. Reformation of thinking to get rid of the “4 olds” Old Customs, Old Culture, Old Habits, and Old Ideas.
1972- Nixon went to china, New York Times report James Reston get acupuncture for emergency appendectomy.
1972- board of medical Examiners begins regulating acupuncture in USA.
1975 California governor signed bill to create Acupuncture advisory committee.
1976- Miriam Lee first licensed acupuncturist after court case involving her needle practice in California. She used Tung points method.
1978- acupuncture as “primary health care provider” and eliminate “prior diagnosis or referral” by doctor dentist, or chiropractor.
1980- Acupuncture Examine committee replaces former Acupunture advisory committee, expand scope of practice within acupuncture.
1988- included acupuncture as a treatment of works compensation.
1990- Acupuncture examing committee changed to Acupuncture Committee.
1991- Tiananmen Square protest and massacre.
1997- National Institute of health formally recognizes acupuncture as mainstream medicine.
1998-legislation passed changing ‘Acupuncture committee’ to ‘Acupuncture Board’.
Western medicine –
4 parts: Greek, Rome, Middle Ages, Modern
Famous Doctors:
Surgions- surgery, he carried forceps, scapels, catheteres, used a anestesia from opiates.
Alcmaeon- author of a book on anatomy.
Humor theory- air, yellow bile, black bile, phlemgn.
Hippocrates- famous for many of his terms used in medicine today:
Acute, chronic, endemic (disease specific to a people in a specific area), epidemic, crisis, peak, paroxysm (spasm), convalescence (recuperation time). Hippocratic oath.
Pedanius Dioscorides- classified western herbs and medicines.
Herophilus- female nurse who studied intelligence was in the brain and connected it to nervous system, understood difference in the vein and artery, pulse.
Erasistratus- also mapped out veins and nervous system, brain, understood air in lungs created spirit to brain and nerves.
Galen- first good surgoen, but surgery not seen again for 2 millennia due to church regulations and working on people and cadavers.
Timeline of events- famous doctors and their books.
Antiquity- before 1700 BC.
Discovery of fire, cooked foods, hot water, moxibustion, hot stones, shamans, Huang di, shen Nong, Fu Xi.
Shang dynasty – (1700-1100 BC)
Yin and yang, laws of nature, 5 elements.
Zhou dynasty- (1100-221 BC) 4 periods: Western, Easter, Spring/autumn, Warring states.
Confucius, Lao Tzu (western). Beginning of organized medical system (Eastern),Bian que Nanjin (spring and Autumn),
Huang di nei jing (Yellow emperor classic),
Wushier Bingfang- the 52 prescriptions.
Qin Dynasty-(221-207 BC)
Burning of the books and killing of scolars by emperor Qin Huangdi.
Han dynasty- (western and eastern) (200 BC to 220 AD)
Silk road, search for immortality elixirs, medical system and education, apprenticeships,
Shennong Ben Cao jing- classic of herbal medicine.
Chunyu Yi – first doctor to keep medical records.
Fu Weng and Gou Yu- acupuncture and moxa doctors to court.
Zhang Zhongjing- Shanghan Lun- (Classic on febrile diseases).
Hua to- surgery and 5 animal qigong.
Chinese Middle Ages: (200-581 AD)3 kingdoms (Wei , shu han, and wu), Jin dynasty, southern dynasty, Northern dynasty.
Buddhism, appointment of medical students, acupuncture for pain.
Huangfu Mi- Zhenjiu Jiayijing (ABC of Acupuncture and Moxabustion.
Wang shuhe- maijing (Classic of pulse).
Ge Hong- alchemist Zhouhou Jiuzufeng (Emergency Prescriptions).
Tao Honjing- commentaries on Shennong Bencaojing (Classic of Herbal medicine. Zhouhou Baiyi Fang (101 emergency prescriptions).
Lei Xiao- Leigong Baozhilun (treatise on the Prepararation of lei gong’s remedies).
Sui dynasty- 581-618 AD
Chao Yuangfang- zhubing Yuanhoulun (Treatise on causes and symptoms of diseases)
Tang dynasty- 618-907 AD
Peak of Buddhism. Imperial academy, herbal gardens, tough examination process, pharmacopeias.
Su jing- Xinxiu Bencao (Revised material medica).
Influence in foreign countries: India, Arabia, Persia, Tibet.
Sun Simiao- Qianjin Yaofang (prescriptions worth 1000 gold). He unders stood cholera and diarrhea from food, tuberculosis as lung disease, leprosy, goiter (lack of iodine), Nyctalopia (lack of vitamin A), Beriberi (lack of vitamin B1), diet before medicine.
5 dynasty period: (later Liang, Later Tang, Later Jin, later han, later Zhou), (907-960 AD)
Liao dynasty (916-1125 AD).
-short lived dynasties and independent states.
Liao dynasty- song dynasty paid money to Liao to maintain peace.
Song Dynasty (Northern and southern) 960 AD to 1279 AD.
Confucianism saw resurgence (neo-Confucianism).
Healthcare system like dispensaries, hospitals, institutions.
Publishing boom- woodblock printing.
Taiping Shenghuifang- (Prescriptions from the Pharmacy of harmonious Assistance)-16834 prescriptions.
Medical Education: 9 dept.- internal medicine, obstetrics, pediatrics, ophthalmology, dermatology, acupuncture, trauma, wind diseases.
Sanyin- 3 causes: endogenous, exogenous and one or both.
Chen Yan- Jiyi Bingzheng (a treatise on pathology)- 3 causes.
Wang Weiyi- Shuxue zhen jiu tujing (illustrated manual of the Bronze man showing acupuncture points). –Bronze acupuncture statue.
Song Ci- Xiyuan jilu (Washing away the wrongs).
Qian Yi- pediatrics. Xiao’er Yaozheng Zhijue (the appropriate way of recognizing and treating infant maladies).smallpox, chickenpox, measles.
Chen Ziming- Furen Daquan Liangfang (Collection of gynecology Treatise) menstruation, pregnancy, child birth.
Jin and Yuan period 1115-1368 AD
Genghis and Kulai khan- warring period. Marco Polo.
Master Heijia (Liu Wansu) Heijia school: 5 movement (yun) 6 influences (qi) school ‘school of cooling” heat vs cold, prescribed cooling herbs.
Zhang Congzheng- 6 doors 3 methods school (wind, heat, damp, dry, fire, cold) 3 methods (sweating, vomit, purge).
Zhang Yuansu (Master of the Yishui school), Yixue Qiyuan (Explanation of Medicine) illness as imbalance in Zhang and fu organs.
Li Gao “old gentle of the eastern wall”. Piweilun (Treatise on the spleen and stomach) vitality declined if spleen and stomach were injured by lifestyle and emotions.
Zhu Zhenheng “minister of fire”, Gezhi Yulun (theories of in-depth research) . Fire consumes Yin energy.
Dou Guifang- Huangdi mingding jiujing (4 volumes on acupuncture and moxa).
Bone setting and Traumatic surgery
Qi Dezhi- Waike Jingyi (The Essentials of External medicine) decoctions, pills, powders, ointments.
Wei yilin- Shiyi Dexiaofang (Efficacious Remedies of the physician), setting fractures, dislocations, anesthetics.
Eating for heath: Hu Sihui (dietician) Yinshan zhengyao (Important principles of food and drink)- moderation in eating. Lists foods.
Ge keijiu- Shiyao Shenshu (Classic on tuberculosis)
Zeng Shirong- Houyou xinshu (study of Pediatrics).
Ming dynasty- 1368-1644
Western Jesuits like Matteo Ricci worked with Chinese scholars.
Debates between various schools on methods: Nourish yin school, Warming and invigorating school, School of Epidemic diseases.
Zhu Zhenheng- School of Nourishing the Yin: quench the fire.
Li Gao- School of warming and invigorating “wenbu”.- tonify spleen and stomach to prevent disease.
Xiu Jie- Neike Zhaiyao (A summary of Internal medicine) Waike Shuyao (Essentials of External medicine), Waike Fahui (the development of external medicine), nuke cuoyao (A resume of gynecology), zhengti Leiyao (A repertory of Traumatology) and Kouchi Leiyao (A Repertory of Stomatology).
Zhao Xianke- theory of Mingmen “gate of vitality” and fire yang and water yin.
Zhang Jiebin- yang was source of life and root of existence.
School of Epidemic Disease (wenbing)- Wang Lu: formulated precise features of various febrile diseases and cold induced illnesses.
Wu Youxing- Wenyilun- Classic on Pestilence) theory of Liqi (excessive influences) was cause of small pox and other infectious diseases.
Advancement in surgery: depression, fried, spicy and charred foods caused cancer. analgesia, asepsis, and hemostasis in surgery.
Chen Shigong- Waike zhengzong (the Genuine surgery).
Wang Ji- decoction of the four rules to fight venereal disease.
Chen Sicheng- Meichuang Milu (Secret writings on Putrid ulcers) on syphilis (use of arsenic and mercury).
Yang Jizhou- Zhengjiu Dacheng (the great success of Acupucture and moxibustion).
Li Shizhen- Bencao gangmu (Compendium of Materia medica) 1000’s of herbs and formulas: water, fire, earth, metal, stone, plant, cereal, vegetable, fruit, tree, insects,, shells, bird, quadrupeds.
He was first to identify gall stones and lived by Confucian principle to extend care to everyone.
Zhu su and Teng shuo- Puji Feng (Prescriptions for saving the public).
Qing dynasty 1644-1911
Opium wars, China refuses to go into modern age, autocratic and despotic. Western colonization.
Wang Mengying- Wenre Jingwe (Fever related illnesses)
Liu Baoyi- Wenre Fengyuan (the source of fevers).
Lei Feng- Shibinglun (Seasonal illnesses)
Anatomy advancement-
Wang Qingren- Yilin Gaicuo (Errors corrected from the forest of physicians).
Yu Maokun- Douke Fujijie (Inoculation against Smallpox) used dry scabs of smallpox patients to make vaccine.
Zhao Xuemin- Bencao Gangmu shiyi (Compendium of material medica) 921 drugs listed.
Publishing boom in Encyclopedias and medical books on gynecology, pediatrics, massage, external medicine, skin diseases and trauma.
Gujin Tushu Jicheng (Collection of ancient and modern works).
Wu Qian- Yizong Jinjian (Golden mirror of medicine).
Zhang Lu- zhangshi Yitong (A summary of master zhang’s medical thoughts).
Cheng Guopend- Yixue Xinwu (An understanding of medicine) 4 methods of examination, diagnostic principles, and therapeutic techniques.
Li Yongcui- Zhengzhi Huibu , this book was devoted to illnesses, symptoms, that relied on internal medicine for treatment.
Western medicine rises:
Huang Kuan- first Chinese to study at Edinburgh University in Scotland.
Zhu Peiwen- Huayang Zangxiang Yuezuan (A combining Chinese and western anatomy illustrations).
Modern China- 1912 to present.
Qing dynasty falls to sun Yat sen and Koumingtang. Rise of the communist party and Mao Zedong.
1929- TCM associations congregated and formed national Union for TCM.
“School of Sino-western convergence and intercourse” emerged.
Tang Zonghai- Zhongxi Huitong yijing jingyi, book that supported strengths and weakeness of both eastern and western medicine.
1954- Dept. of Chinese medicine ws established under the Ministry of public health.
1957- TCM Institutions in Shanghai, Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, and Nanjing.
2000 chinese physicians trained in western medicine to study TCM.
Cultural revolution- set back for TCM, books destroyed, teachers and doctors imprisoned.
After revolution:
Preservation of China traditional herbs and growing conditions systematically grown.
New medicines: pills, tablets, capsules, granules, suppositories, creams, lotions, and suspensions.
Hospitals grew: surgery acupuncture for surgery, Taijiquan, use of X-rays.
Increase in hospitals for both Western and TCM medicine.
Western medicine has a progression where old theories die and new theories arise by scientific evidence. Something from 100 years ago is disregarded based on new scientific data and results.
Eastern Medicine has many theories that are used today that date back thousands of years, TCM doctors use many of the medical findings by doctors throughout the history.
5 elements:
1. Water- downward.
2. Fire- radiates.
3. Wood- upward.
4. Metal- destroys.
5. Earth- absorbs.
Chinese has several creation and destruction cycles. One is star pattern, other has Earth in center. See diagram on notes.
Korean has fire in center and with 4 body types. See diagram in notes.
5 zhang- solid organs.- must have or die.
6 Fu- hollow organs, can remove.
High level doctors alter the patient’s lifestyle.
Average doctors- help the internal problem.
Poor doctor- can fix the local problem.

Treating problems that are not healing: treat the part of body/balance not letting the body heal itself.
3 week sports injury- should see healing results after a few treatments.
4 month sport injury not going away- should see results after a 10 or more treatments.
Problem persisting for years: 40 to 50x treatments.

Shennong: herbal godfather, father of agriculture, tested foods and labeled them: cold, cool, warm, hot.
7 types of qi
1. Congential qi: called yaun qi and it is from parents at conception, kidneys-jing.
2. Acquired qi: 6 types.
1. Kong qi- air/lungs
2. Gu Qi- from food
3. Zong qi- collects to heart (yuan+kong+gu)
4. Zhen qi- true qi. Channels.
5. Ying Qi- inside channel, acupuncture/moxa
6. Wei qi- outside channel. Qigong.
Acquired qi- is like a battery.
Congenital qi- like computer memory, cannot change.

Herbs, metals, minerals-
Gold: gathers and promotes circulation
Silver- disperses energy.
Quote: All food is good food, there is no bad food or good food in a dualistic sense, there is only food that is not right for you.
Ginseng: earthy-absorbing.
Chinese and Korean is red are labeled HOT.
American is a white ginseng and is Warming.
Ginseng: uses nutrients from the soil. Once a ginseng is harvested, you cannot plant a crop there for 5-10 years.
It is best to let ginseng grow about 6 years.
Does not add or remove qi, it just moves it around.
Example: if your kidneys are weak and your heart is too strong, a good TCM doctor will move some of the heart qi to the kidney qi.
Acupuncture is a science, not an art of mystery.
Different approaches to treating a patient:
Example: a student has poor grades and not study well.
1. The poor study is due to being hungry, having girlfriend problems. Treatment: feed the hungery, get rid of girlfriend.
2. Poor study: make the student study more.

San jiao- triple warmer- separates body into 3 sections.
A C-section birth cuts the san jiao, can cause san jiao dis-eases.

Winter- do not ‘train hard’ in winter time, do not stress lungs. The Cold air, or “air qi” is weak outside. It can hurt your lungs. gain a few pounds in winter is ok. this will help for Spring time.
Fat/weight gain: men tend to get round in stomach area when weight gain, women accumulate in butt area.
Allergy analogy: If body is strong, allergy is like a 5 year old bully.
If body is weak allergy is like a 300 lb. biker brawler.

4/17/2014 East and West history: Eastern and Western medicine overview:
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an ancient medical system that takes a deep understanding of the laws and patterns of nature and applies them to the human body.
TCM is a holistic medical system which combines the use of acupuncture, herbs, nutrition, massage, and physical movement like Qigong and Tai Chi, to bring body into balance.
Western medicine looks closely at a symptom and tried to find an underlying cause, TCM looks at the body as a whole. Each Symptom is looked at in the relationship to all other presenting symptoms. The goal of the TCM practitioner is to assess the entire constitution of the patient—considering both physiological and psychological aspects.
The practitioner first observes the general characteristics of the patient, then tries to discern a relationship between symptoms in order to establish what is called a “pattern of disharmony”.
Treatment is aimed at restoring harmony and brining the body into balance.

Basic concepts:
I. Qi and Blood:
-the circulating life energy that in Chinese Philosophy is thought to be inherent in all things.
-Blood: meaning jing, hormones, lymph, yin, and blood.
-Qi: meaning: yuan, kong, gu, zhen, zong, ying, and wei varieties.
Nutrition Qi is ying qi. Helped with herbs and acupuncture.
Defensive Qi or Wei qi is helped with Tu-Na, Dao-yin, Qigong, Tai chi, etc.
II. Yin and Yang theory:
The shape of the yin sections of the symbol, actually gives you a sense of continual movement of these two energies, yin to yang, and yang to yin,
causing everything to happen: just as things expand and contract and temperature changes from cold to hot.
-Inside vs outside
-lower vs higher part.
-softer part vs. harder part.
-Blood vs. Qi.
– Lu,Sp,Ht,Kd,Pc,Lv vs. Li,St,Si,Bd,Sj,Gb.
-Yin is important part and essential part (holds things in).
-Yang is less important in terms of life threating (it passes through).
Yin/yang- balance, understand one is stronger and weaker. Restore the balance, know the proportions of yin and yang.

Upper Body- Yang, Face is hottest part.
Lower Body- Yin, feet is coldest part.
When you are Sick- face gets extra hot, feel temperature at forehead, this is a way to measure if it is a blood circulation problem due to excessive heat. Use cold towel to help balance.
When sick- warm-up the feet in the Yin part.

Men- are more Yang body is warm and hot temperature.
Women are colder more Yin, because of blood loss monthly. Tend to cold limbs. This changes at menopause when menstruation stops. Body will begin to get warm, thus ‘hot flashes’.
Healthy women- adjust to menopause in weeks’ time and get used to new internal system.
Unhealthy women- takes several years to adjust, have a hard time adjusting to new internal system.

Use common sense, listen to your body.
One thing is that in some western practices they may have mother who just gave birth take a cold bath. Taking a cold bath is not good after giving birth.
It is best to use warm. In Asian culture many new mothers are expected to stay away from cold 100 days after giving birth. Warm heals faster than cold.
Ice and cold are for pain, but if you do not feel a lot of pain and are just sore, use heat. Some women have a heat linament rubbed on legs after giving birth.
Yin and yang are relative:
-water is yin, but water is yang because ice is yin.
-fire is yang, but fire is yin, and laser is yang.
Age: boy is yang, but old man is yin.
Yin and yang standout in people, for example: Old woman has a very yang personality, but is old and female: yin.
Front of body is yin (soft organs) while back of body ins yang (hard bones of spine). However this is for upper body, lower part of body, front is yang (hard bones of knee) and back of legs are Yin (soft muscles).

Change happens in months, conditions of patient change with the seasons. A herb prescribed 6 months ago may not be needed to be taken. A new diagnosis may be needed to determine if you still need same herb or new formula.
Acupuncture and herbs combination:
Acupuncture is like teaching someone how to study, and herbs is like extra material a teacher will give to improve the studying: books, charts, handouts. Herbs add more help to the acupuncture. This is a good combination.
The patient is sick, you have to find out how they got sick, not just fix the symptoms of the sickness. Interview the patient, find where/how they got sick.
A patient says is feeling better and ask if they can stop taking the medicine: If you stop taking a shower will you stop getting dirty? You will get dirty, thus you will get sick.
Example: a patient with high blood pressure stops taking medicine, high blood pressure will come back.
3 types of patients that cannot be healed/cured:
1. Shamanic/faith healer: have irrational ways and lack logic. Example: snake handler religion, think snake/god will take care of sickness.
2. Money greedy: people who sacrifice money over health. Will not spend money on things they will help them and improve life. No exercise, just work to make money.
3. People who keep secrets. Not telling the doctor everything, truth. Not telling about lifestyle or bad habits.
3 ways of getting sickness:
1. Outside/External influence (Evil Qi): virus, bacteria, germs, cold energy, damp, heat, winds, ect.
2. Inside imbalance: food, emotion/stress: excessive joy, anger, fear, worry, sad, over-thinking.
3. Qi/blood Blockage: maybe from outside influence, inside influence or both.
Body signals: Use common sense, listen to your body.
Sometimes the craving you have are from the body and other times from the mind. You need to really sense what your body and mind are saying: for example you are craving seafood, this is salty, your body is telling you need some salt, but wanting something fatty and unhealthy is a mind craving. Eating the food that is not right for you will cause an internal imbalance and blockage.
External/Outside/”Evil Qi” for example it is very cold outside: the cold can get under layers: the skin, under muscles, under the blood vessles and meridians, penetrate to the bones, and finally the Zhang/Fu organs.
(Cold weather sample) into layers:
————blood vessel/meridian
Zhang/Fu organ.

When the outside influence penetrates deep to the bone and organ, it is very hard to fix.
Different methods treat the different layers:
Massage can help with skin, muscle, and blood levels.
Acupuncture helps the deeper layers of meridian, bone, and organ.
5 Element theory:
5 Element theory- heart fire, water kidney. “raise water-drain fire”. Metal- decrease, Wood- expand/rise, Earth- absorb.
5 images used to describe forces, and specific relationship to one another.

5 Elements: personality, body shape, organs, climate, taste, tissue, sense, direction, season, color, yin/yang organ, etc.

Talk on Calcium
– Milk is best for baby (baby cows that is), not adults. Digestion in humans change with age and harder to adjust to dairy when older.
– Milk is not always the best source of calcium.
Yin and yang theory is best for acupuncture, while 5 Element theory is best for Chinese herbs. This is saying that 5 element theory in acupuncture has been researched in the history of chinese medicine and found to be not as useful, using yin-yang theory in acupuncture history found this practice yields better results.
Trends in Eastern History in Chinese Medicine:

Pre-history, Antiquity:
Early inhabitants found foods that could relieve illnesses, others were poisonous.
Discovery of fire allowed for food to be cooked.
3 shaman leaders:
1. Fu xi- I-ching, yin-yang, and bagua theory.
2. Shennong- father of agriculture and herbs.
3. Huang di- Yellow emperor. Su wen book on lifestyle and Ling Shu- book on acupuncture clinical practice.
Shang dynasty (1700-1100BC)-
-use of wine and hot water a medicine.
-needles and bronze knives as surgical instruments.
-yin and yang theory and 5 element theory are basically common knowledge at this point.
Concepts of Qi, moxibustion, herbal decoctions, needles.
Zhou dynasty (1100-221BC)-
Taoism and Confucius time.
-organized medical systems developed: court appointed physicians.
Spring and Autumn period of Zhou dynasty:
Bian Que: Book: Nan Jing. patient diagnostics improved, questions, observer eyes, throat, etc.
Warring states period: book- Wushier Bingfang: 52 prescriptions early pharmacology.
Qin Dynasty (221-207 BC):
-Emperor Shi Huangdi burned books and killed scholars in 213 BC.
Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD):
Most TCM theory and practice.
Qi and Blood fully entrenched in practice of TCM.
Examinations to recruit qualified physicians were introduced.
Silk road- communication and trade route.
Bencaogang (Classic of herbal medicine)- 365 medicines, 252 plant origin, 67 from animals, 46 from minerals.
Zhang Zhongjing- Shanghan Zabinglun.
Huang Fu Mi- Zhenjiu Jiayijing. ABC book of acupuncture and Moxibustion.
Wang Shuhe- The Maijing (Pulse classic, manual of the pulses.)
Hua To- surgeon and battlefield doctor, developed anesthesia, and exercise for body based on animal movement.
Tao hanjing- commentaries on the Shennong Bencaojing (Classic of herbal medicine).
-Emperor Wen of Song Kingdom: appoint physicians to teach medical students, government assigned teachers to educate higher standard of TCM.

Jin Dynasty- (265 AD to 960 ad)
Classic of pulse
First pharmacopeia
Imperial medical school
Systematic acupuncture and moxibustion
Disease and symptioms by Chao Yuanfeng
1000 golden prescriptions Sun simiao
Sui dynasty (581-618 AD)
Physician Chao Yuangfang- Zhubing Yuanhoulun (Treatise on Cause and symptoms of disease) book.

Tang dynasty (618-907 AD)
Imperial academy: Medical school system and Pharmacy system.
Sun Simiao- Hippocrates of TCM (body over disease)
His book: The Qianjian Yaofang- (Prescriptions worth a 1000 gold for emergencies, or Precious prescriptions for emergencies).
Song dynasty (960-1270 AD)
Wood Block printing, many books on TCM were printed under government supervision.
-Yellow Emperor’s classic, Classic of herbal medicine, Pulse classic, ABC of Acupuncture and moxibustion in publication.
Acupuncture statue.
New theory: The 3 causes.
Yuan dynasty (1270-1370)
Discussion on new methods: pathology, gynecology, pediatrics.
Liu Wansu: 5 movement, 6 influence. School of cooling: nourishing yin.
Zhang Congzheng- 6 doors , 3 methods.
Zhang Yuansu- illness was result of imbalance in zhang and fu organs.
Li Gao- how lifestyle affects body, spleen and stomach were vitality, emotions affect Qi.
Zhu Zhenheng- Minister of fire- fire and heat school.
Bone setting and tramatic surgery.
Eating for health.
(era of different schools)

Ming Dynasty- (1368-1644)
Debates, 3 schools:
1. Nourishing yin school,
2. Warming and invigorating school,
3.epidemic disease school.
Advancement in surgery
Waike zhengzong- early surgery records in TCM.
Li shizhen- Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of material medica.)
Qing dynasty (1644-1912 AD)
Western influence
Publishing of many encyclopedias.
Medical standards.
Integrated TCM.
Modern times (1912- today)
TCM to the world.
Combine western and eastern medicine.
National and international standards.
Parts of China and what they influenced based on climate to TCM:
North: moxibutions (cold)
South- herbs (warm) grasses.
Eastern region- (sea) acupuncture.
Western- (dry) qigong.

East West medicine:
Doctor and Book:
Fu Xi- i-ching
Shen Nong- Ben Cao jing , Herbal medicine.
Huang Di- Huang di nei jing- Classic of internal medicine.
Bian Que- Nanjing- commentary of huang di nei jing.
Hua To- Wuqinxi- 5 animal play.
Zhang Zhong Jing- Shang han Lun- study of febrile diseases.
Wang Shuhe- Mai Ching- Pulse diagnosis.
Sun Simio- Qian Jin Yi Fang; emergency formulas worth 1000 gold.
Huangfu Mi- Zhenjiu Jiayi Jing: systematic practice of acupuncture and moxa.
Most Chinese are Han. Many rulers have controlled China, but it is called Chinese history because it happened in China region.

North- moxibustion
West- qigong
East- acupuncture
South- herbology

2nd history theory:
Moxa- Tibet
Qigong- India
Herbs- southeast asia
Acupuncture- korea.

Historical Timeline divided into 4 core parts:
1. TCM part 1: antiquity to Zhou dynasty: fundamental time, learning how to recover from disease.
2. Part II: Han to Tang dynasty: how to repair the body.
3. Part III: Song to Ming dynasty: how to diagnose disease.
4. Part IV: Qing to Modern: combine western diagnosis and TCM.
Febrile diseases: feverish, hot, flushed, inflamed, delirious.

TCM history/theory:
Origin of Qi-
Normal/Upright Qi (zheng qi) or True qi (zhen qi). comes from 3 sources:
1. Original Qi- yuan qi: from parents, genetics, jing stored in Kidneys (reproductive system testes/ovaries).
2. Grain Qi- (gu qi) extracted from food, the qi from food and digestion.
3. Natural air Qi- (kong qi) oxygen/air we breathe.
Body or action Qi-
Organ qi- zhang fu zhi qi
Meridian qi- jinglou zhi qi
nutritive qi- ying qi: blood full of food nutrients from stomach, air from lungs, hormones/jing from kidneys, in the jinglou.
Protective qi- wei qi: skin, muscles, hair, chest abdominal. outside the jinglou.
Chest/ancestral qi- zhong qi: heart/lungs, vessels. Normal/True and nutritive qi goes to heart- heart to body.
5 elements: pulse taking, understanding the 5 fu and 6 zhang organs, yin and yang (inner and outer) of patient.
organ: Liver| heart| spleen| lung| kidney|
color: green| red| yellow| white| black|
direction: east| south| center| west | north|
sense organ:eyes| ears| mouth| nose| sex organ|
body part: nerves| heart| tongue| back | body cavity|
taste: sour| bitter| sweet| pungent| salty|
element: wood| fire| earth| metal| water|
animal: chicken| sheep| ox| horse | pig|
grain: wheat| glutinous| millet| rice | bean|
planet: Jupiter| mars | Saturn| evening star| morning star|
season: spring| summer| long summer| fall | winter|.
number: 8| 7| 5| 9| 6|

TCM notes for 5/8/2014
Western medicine –
4 parts: Greek, Rome, Middle Ages, Modern
Famous Doctors:
Surgions- surgery, he carried forceps, scapels, catheteres, used a anestesia from opiates.
Alcmaeon- author of a book on anatomy.
Humor theory- air, yellow bile, black bile, phlemgn.
Hippocrates- famous for many of his terms used in medicine today:
Acute, chronic, endemic (disease specific to a people in a specific area), epidemic, crisis, peak, paroxysm (spasm), convalescence (recuperation time). Hippocratic oath.
Pedanius Dioscorides- classified western herbs and medicines.
Herophilus- female nurse who studied intelligence was in the brain and connected it to nervous system, understood difference in the vein and artery, pulse.
Erasistratus- also mapped out veins and nervous system, brain, understood air in lungs created spirit to brain and nerves.
Galen- first good surgoen, but surgery not seen again for 2 millennia due to church regulations and working on people and cadavers.
Middle Ages: Barber shops- blood letting, holes in cranium (trepadation), barber shop symbol- white is bandage, red is blood, blue is body.

Modern times: microscope, anesthesia, vaccines, chiropractic. radiology, other.

Eastern medicine:
Huang di Nejing- Su Wen and Ling Shu. it departs from shamanic ways of disease by possession. focus on universe, qi- yin yang, 5 elements, and seasons. The natural effects of diet, lifestyle, emotions, environment and age are reasons of disease.
Su Wen- book of plain questions: 24 volumes, converstaion between Yellow Emperor and ministers including Qi bo and Lei gong.
Ling Shu- the vital axis. second book 81 chapters, acupuncture principles.
Nanjing- by Bien Que, “questioning Huang di neijing” refelcts on the earlier book and proposes difficulties and doubts and offers answers. 81 questions in the Nanjing. Pulse taking, zang-fu viscera, meridians and Shu acu-points.
Details on the various types of Qi and their sources, functions, distribution and relevance:
1. Jing (essence): source: parents, gu qi, and wei qi.
function: growth, reporduction, development.
Distribution: kidneys, testes, ovaries.
relevance: weak jing in children lead to poor bone development, slow learning, poor concentration, weak jing in elderly leads to deafness,, osteoporosis, unclear thinking.
2. Yuan Qi- (original Qi)
Source- jing.
function-promote and stimulate functional activites of organs. provideds a foundation and catalyst for production of Zhen Qi.
Distribution: originates in the ming men, circulates via the San Jiao, pools in the meridians at the Yuan source points.
Relevance- deficiencies in Yuan Qi may lead to poor development of acquired qi.
3. Gu qi- (essence of food and grain).
Source: originates from the action of the spleen on the food in stomach.
function: combines with kong and zong qi. some aspects transformed in blood.
Distribution: arises in the ST/SP and is moved to the chest where further distributed.
Relevance: good quality food and strong ST/SP are important to generate energy.
Weaknesses in the SP may lead to bloating, distention, fatigue, loss of appetite.
4. Kong Qi (air qi)
source: orginates from the air recieved by lungs.
function: combines with Gu qi to form zong qi.
distribution: distributed in the chest.
Relevance: good quality air and good breathing practices are essential for the formation of energy.
5. Zong qi- (gathering qi)
source: combination of gu qi and kong qi.
function: nourish the hear and lungs, aids the lungs in their role of respiration and circulationg energy throughout the body, assists the heart in circulation of blood through vessels to body.
distribution: stored in the chest.
Relevance: with a deficiency you will see the HT and LU most effected. low energy, weak voice, poor circulation in the extremeties. Can be treated with CV17 and the yuan source points of HT (HT7) and Lu (LU9).
6. Zhen Qi (True Qi)
Source: derived from Zong Qi when acted upon by Yuan qi.
function: this is the form of qi that circulated in the meridians and nourishes the organs.
Distribution: originates in the chest and is distributed throughout the body by respiration. composite of ying qi and wei qi.
Relevance: deficiencies indicate either and imbalance in the functioning of the creation of acquired qi or in the declining amount of Yuan Qi.
7. Ying qi (nutritive Qi)
Function: nourishes the organs. helps produce blood.
Distribution: circulates in the main meridians. flows with the blood in the main meridians and within blood vessels.
Relevance: this is the aspect of qi that is needled with acupuncture.
8. Wei qi- (defensive Qi)
function: protect the body, warm surface of body, regulate body temperature by open/close pores.
distribution: on the surface of the body, and within muscles and skin, but not within the meridians. circulation is dependent on the lungs.
Relevance: people who catch colds easily often have weiqi deficiency.
deficiency may also make it difficult to regulate body temperature.
Functions of Qi in the body
Catalyzing functions: qi assists in the formation and transformation within the body, for example, the transformation of food into Qi and blood.
Protecting functions: qi defends the body from the external pathogens.
Raising and Stability functions: qi holds organs in their place, keeps blood in the vessels, governs the removal of fluids.
Transporting functions: qi is the foundation of all movement and growth in the body.
Warming fuctions: qi helps to control homeostasis and provides warmth for the body.

Qi disharmonies with signs and symptoms:
4 main imbalances of Qi. Affect part of body, organ, meridian, or area. example: deficiency of qi may effect lungs with symptoms of shortness of breath.
1. Qi deficiency: fatigue, dizziness, worse on exertion, pale face, weak spirit. tongue is pale, thin coat. Pulse is empty.
2. Sinking Qi: qi deficiency signs, down bearing sensation in abdomen, prolapse of organ. tongue is pale/thin coat. pulse is empty.
3. Qi Stagnation: Pain that is not fixed in chest or hypchondriac area. tongue is white coat. Pulse is wiry or tight.
4. Rebellious Qi: coughing, belching, vomiting, hiccup, dizziness. tongue is pale white coat or Red w/yellow coat. Pulse is wiry or rapid.
(not needed from class/exam)
note From Yellow Emperor Classic:
12 meridians
Taiyin and Yangming meridians:
1. Lung meridian of Hand Taiyin- middle burning space to the tip of the thumb.
2. Large intestine meridian of Hand Yangming- tip of thumb and small finger to large intestine.
3. Stomach meridian of Foot-Yangming- from middle of nose to the middle of foot.
4. Spleen meridian of foot- Taiyin. From the great toe to the lower part of tongue.
Shaoyin and Taiyang meridians:
5. Heart meridian of the hand Shaoyin- from the heart to the inside of the little finger.
6. Small Intestines meridian of the hand Taiyin- from the little finger to the small intestines.
7. Bladder meridian of the Foot Taiyang- from the inner corner of eye to the little toe.
8. Kidney meridian of Foot shaoyin- from the little toe to the root of the tongue.
Jueyin and Shaoyang meridians:
9. Pericardium of the hand Jueyin- from the middle of the stomach to the top of middle finger.
10. San Jiao of hand Shaoyang- from the tip of the little finger to the 3 burning places.
11. Gall Bladder of the Foot shaoyang- from the outer angles of the eye to the little toes.
12. Liver meridian of the foot Jueyin- from the hairy spot of big toe to the vertex of the head.



jing-well points





About Administrator

Coach Matt Stampe is a Database Administrator and I.T. professional. In the world of Bodywork, he has been a Certified Massage Therapist (CNT) licensed with the Virginia Board of Nursing, and has a “Master of Science in Acupuncture” (MSA) at Virginia University of Integrative Medicine ( He is a candidate with the National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (NCCAOM). He has taught hundreds of people Authentic Yang Tai Chi Kung Fu for over 25 years. He was President of the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) Martial arts club, Secretary and Treasurer of USA chapter of Yongnian Association under Sifu He Weiqi. Experience includes: Kung fu schools: Omei Shaolin (Sifu Lu Xiaoling) 3rd degree Black Sash, Chinese Martial Arts Institute (Sifu Clarence Burris), United States Wushu Academy (Coach Christopher Pei), and Qi Elements (Sifu Nancy Bloomfield), Former Head Coach: Virginia Beach Parks and Recreation centers(Adults Tai Chi), Hope Chinese school (kids classes), NOVA MMA gym in Arlington (kids classes), and VUOM Martial Arts Tai Chi club (Fairfax). He has positively impacted peoples lives whether for health, sport, strength, combat, and spirit. As a true combat athlete, he teaches methods so people can be confident to defend themselves.
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